Science and Technology
Karl Landsteiner
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Karl Landsteiner:

Karl Landsteiner, ForMemRS (June 14, 1868 – June 26, 1943), was an Austrian and American biologist and physician.He is noted for having first distinguished the main blood groups in 1900.In 1937 transfuse blood without endangering the patient′s life, discovered the polio virus in 1909.
Academic career:
Landsteiner’s father, Leopold (1818–1875),Viennese journalist who was editor-in-chief of Die the age of 6th karl father was died,after he maintain a close relationshisp with his mom Fanny. After graduating with the Matura exam from a Vienna secondary school, wrote his doctoral thesis in 1891 at University of Vienna
From 1891 to 1893, Landsteiner studied chemistry in Würzburg under Hermann Emil Fischer, in München under Eugen Bamberger and in Zürich under Arthur Rudolf Hantzsch.he starts Medical Research in the United States in 1922 at Rockefeller Institute.

Discovery of the polio virus:

After came back to Vienna he worked an assistant to Max von Gruber at the Hygienic Institute,at the same time he concentrated on the mechanism of immunity and the nature of antibodies.From November 1897 to 1908 he became assistance at pathological-anatomical institute of the University of Vienna under Anton Weichselbaum.where he published 75 papers, dealing with issues in serology, bacteriology, virology and pathological anatomy
From 1908 to 1920 Landsteiner was prosector at the Wilhelminenspital in Vienna.During that time he discovered isolated the polio virus,which proved to be the basis for the fight against polio.

Discovery of the blood groups:
1900 Karl Landsteiner found out that the blood of two people under contact agglutinates, and in 1901 he found that this effect was due to contact of blood with blood serum.he succeeded in identifying the three blood groups A, B and O. in 1907 the first successful blood transfusion was performed by Reuben Ottenberg at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York.
After World War I Landsteiner did not see any possibilities to carry on with his research work, he decided to move to Holland and worked as prosector in the small Catholic St. Joannes de Deo hospital at the same time improved to financial joined in small factory.1920s Landsteiner worked on the problems of immunity and allergy, In 1927 he discovered new blood groups: M, N and P,  refining the work he had begun 20 years before. Soon after Landsteiner and his collaborator, Philip Levine, published the work and, in 1927, the types began to be used in paternity suits.

Personal life:

Landsteiner converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism in 1890.In 1916 he married Leopoldine Helene Wlasto.937 Landsteiner took legal action against an American publisher who had included him in the book Who`s Who in American Jewry, stating that "it will be detrimental to me to emphasize publicly the religion of my ancestors.
Landsteiner was posthumously awarded the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award in 1946 and elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1941. On 14th June 2016, Google showed a Doodle for the 148th birthday of Karl Landsteiner.