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##### Question 1. When we say sound travels in a medium (AS 1)

A) the medium travels
B) the particles of the medium travel
C) the source travels
D) the disturbance travels

D) the disturbance travels

##### Question 2. A sound wave consists of (AS 1)

A) number of compression pulses only
B) number of rarefaction pulses only
C) number of compression and rarefaction pulses one after the other
D) vacuum only

C) number of compression and rarefaction pulses one after the other

A) second
B) minute
C) hour
D) milli second

A)second

A) amplitude
B) frequency
C) wavelength
D) speed

A) amplitude

A) pitch
B) loudness
C) quality
D) sound

A) pitch

##### Question 6. In a stethoscope, sound of heart beats travel through stethoscope tube (AS 1)

A) by bending along the tube
B) in a straight line
C) undergoing multiple reflections
D) all of the above

C) undergoing multiple reflections

Question 7.
Explain the following terms : (AS 1)

a) amplitude
b) wavelength
c) frequency

a) Amplitude :
The maximum variation in density or pressure from the mean value is called amplitude.
(or)

The maximum disturbance of particles of a medium from their mean position is called amplitude.

b) Wavelength :
The distance between two consecutive compressions or two consecutive rarefactions is called the wavelength of a sound wave, denoted by W. Wavelength is measured in ‘meters’.

c) Frequency :

1. The number of oscillations of the density of the medium at a place per unit time is called the frequency of the sound wave.
2. Frequency is denoted by ‘o’.
3. The S.I. unit of frequency is ‘Hertz’.
##### Question 8. Deduce the relation between wavelength, frequency, and speed of sound. (AS 1)

1) Speed of sound can be defined as the distance by which a point on the wave, such as a compression or rarefaction, travels in unit time.

2) Let the distance travelled by a wave in T seconds = X metres

3) The distance travelled by a wave in 1 second =λ/T meters

4) Thus by definition of speed of wave, v = λ/T ……….. (1)

5) We know that frequency and time period are related as υ =1/T ……….. (2)

6) From (1) and (2) we get v = λ .υ
∴ Speed of sound = Frequency × Wavelength

##### Question 9. How are multiple reflections of sound helpful to doctors and engipeeps? (AS 7)

1) Doctors use multiple reflections of sound to hear the sounds produced with in the body using stethoscope.

2) Doctors can see the images of patient’s organs like liver, gall bladder, uterus, etc. to know the abnormalities in their functioning, using ultrasounds.

3) Engineers use the reflections of sound in designing concert halls and cinema halls.

4) Generally the ceilings of concert halls, conference halls, cinema halls are designed such that sound after reflection reaches all corners of the hall as shown in the figure.

##### Question 10. Name two quantities that vary periodically at a place in air as a sound wave travels through it. (AS 1)

The two quantities that vary periodically at a place in air as a sound wave travels through it are density and pressure of particles.

##### Question 11. Which has larger frequency – infrasonic sound or ultrasonic sound? (AS 7, AS 2)

• Infrasonics are the sounds of frequency less than 20 Hz.
• Ultrasonics are the sounds of frequency greater than 20 kHz.
• Hence the ultrasonics have larger frequency.
##### Question 12. The grandparents and parents of two-year-old girl are playing with her in a room. A sound source produces a 28 kHz sound. Who in the room is most likely to hear the sound? (AS 2, AS 7)

• The two-year-old girl is able to hear the sound.
• Children can hear sounds of somewhat higher frequencies up to 30 kHz.

Question 13.
Does the sound follow same laws of reflection as light does? (AS 1)

• Reflection of sound follows the same laws as the reflection of light when sound is reflected.
• The directions in which the sound is incident and reflected make equal angles with the normal to the reflecting surface.
##### Question 14. Why is soft furnishing avoided in concert halls? (AS 7)

• Sound reflects like the reflection of light.
• But unlike to light, sound reflects more on rough surfaces than soft surfaces.
• In concert halls, sound must undergo multiple reflections, so as to reach all corners of the hall.
• Hence for better reflection, soft furnishing is avoided in concert halls.
##### Question 15. Two sources A and B vibrate with the same amplitude. They produce sounds of frequencies 1 kHz and 30 kHz respectively. Which of the two waves will have larger power? (AS 1)

Frequency of source A = 1 kHz; Frequency of source B = 30 kHz

As the speed of wave increases with frequency and both the waves have same amplitude, the sound produced from source B has larger power.

##### Question 16. What do you understand by a sound wave? (AS 1)

• Sound is produced from a vibrating body.
• It travels through air in the form of a wave.
• Sound waves are longitudinal.
##### Question 17. Define the wavelength of a sound wave. How is it related to the frequency and the wave speed? (AS 1)

Wavelength :
The distance between two consecutive compressions or rarefactions is called wavelength.

Relation between wavelength, frequency, and wave speed :

1. Speed of sound can be defined as the distance by which a point on the wave, such as a compression or rarefaction, travels in unit time.
2. Let the distance travelled by a wave in T seconds = λ metres
3. The distance travelled by a wave in 1 second = λ/T meters
4. Thus by definition of speed of wave, v =λ/T .... (1)
5. We know that frequency and time period are related as o = 1/T ..... (2)
##### Question 18. Explain how echoes are used by bats to judge the distance of an obstacle in front of them. (AS 1)

• Bats search out prey and fly in dark night by emitting and detecting reflections of ultrasonic waves.
• The high pitched ultrasonic squeaks of the bat are reflected from the obstacles or prey and returned to bat’s ear.
• The nature of reflections tells the bat where the obstacle or prey is and what it is like.
• The bats use ultrasound for navigation and location of the food in dark.
##### Question 19. With the help of a diagram describe how compression and rarefaction pulses are produced in air near a source of sound. (AS 5)

• Consider a vibrating membrane of a musical instrument like a drum or tabla.
• As it moves back and forth, it produces a sound.
• The figure shows the membrane at different instants and the condition of the air near it at those instants.
• As the membrane moves forward, it pushes the particles of air in the layer in front of it.
• So, the particle of air in the layer get closer to each other, hence the density increases.
• This layer of air pushes and compresses the layer next to it and so on.
• We call this disturbance as compression pulse.
• When the membrane moves backward, it drags back the layer of air near it. Hence the density decreases.
• The particles of air in the next layer on the right move into fill this less dense area.
• This is a rarefaction pulse moves to right.
• As the membrane moves back and forth repeatedly, compression and rarefaction pulses are produced, one after the other.
• These two pulses travel one behind the other, carrying the disturbance with it.
##### Question 20. How do echoes in a normal room affect the quality of the sounds that we hear? (AS 7)

• Echo is a reflected sound, arriving at the position of listener more than 0.1s after the direct sound.
• Quality is the characteristic of a sound which enables us to distinguish between musical notes emitted by different musical instruments.
• In a normal room, if echo is formed, we can hear multiple sounds, at same time.
• Our ear cannot perceive and judge the sound from where it is coming.
• So, quality of sound does not work here.
##### Question 21. Explain the working and applications of SONAR. (AS 1)

• SONAR stands for Sonographic Navigation And Ranging.
• This is a method for detecting and finding the distance of objects under water by means of reflected ultrasonic waves.

Working of SONAR:

1. SONAR system consists of a transmitter and a detector in the “Observation Centre” on board of a ship.
2. From the observation centre, ultrasonic waves of high frequency are sent in all directions under the water through transmitter.
3. These waves travel in straight lines till they hit an object such as a submarine, a sunken ship, etc.
4. The waves are then reflected and are received back by the receiver at the observation centre.
5. The study of these reflected waves gives information about the direction of the object located.
6. The time between sending ultrasonic wave and receiving its echo, the distance of the object is calculated.
7. Reflections from various angles can be utilized to determine the shape and size of the object.

Mathematical expression :

1. Let’d’ be the distance between SONAR and an underwater object.
2. ‘t’ be the time between sending an ultrasonic wave and receiving its echo.
3. ‘u’ be the speed of sound in water.
4. The total distance covered by the wave from the SONAR to the object and back is 2d.
5. From the equation s = ut ⇒ 2d = ut ⇒ d = ut/2.

Application:
Marine geologists use this method to determine the depth of the sea and to locate underwater hills and valleys.

##### Question 22. Find the time period of a source of a sound wave whose frequency is 400 Hz. (AS 1)

Frequency υ = 400 Hz
Time period T =?

#### Question 23. A sound wave travels at a speed of 340 m/s. If its wavelength is 2 cm, what is the frequency of the wave? Will it be in the audible range? (AS 1)

Speed of sound v = 340 m/s.; Wavelength λ = 2 cm = 0.02 m.
Frequency υ =?

The audible range of sound wave is 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
Hence this is in the audible range.

#### Question 24. Given that sound travels in air at 340 m/s, find the wavelength of the waves in air produced by a 20 kHz sound source. If the same source is put in a water tank, what would be the wavelength of the sound waves in water? (AS 7) Speed of sound in water = 1,480 m/s.

In air:
Speed of sound wave (v) = 340 m/s ; Frequency of source of sound (o) = 20 kHz
Wavelength of the sound wave λ=?
v = υλ

∴ Wavelength of the sound wave in air = 17 m

Same source is kept in water :
∴ Speed of sound in water (v) = 1480 m/s
Frequency of sound wave (p) = 20 kHz
Wavelength of sound wave λ=?
v = υλ

∴ Wavelength of the sound wave in water = 74 m

##### Question 25. A man is lying on the floor of a large, empty hemispherical hall, in such a way that his head is at the centre of the hall. He shouts “Hello!” and hears the echo of his voice after 0.2 s. What is the radius of the hall ? (Speed of sound in air 340 m/s) (AS 7)

Let the distance travelled by the sound wave = 2d m

As the head of the man is at the centre of hemispherical room, then ‘d’ is the radius of the hall.
∴ Radius of the hall = 34 m

##### Question 26. “We know that sound is a form of energy. So, the large amount of energy produced due the sound pollution in cosmopolitan cities can be used to our day-to-day needs of energy. It also helps us to protect biodiversity in urban areas”. Do you agree with this statement? Explain.

1. Sound is a form of mechanical energy.
2. So, the mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy.
3. Experiments are going on this concept.
4. If this is successful, we have the following benefits.
a) Sound pollution can be controlled.
b) Conventional methods of producing electrical energy from coal or water will cause in loss of biodiversity. This can be avoided.
c) Natural resources like water can be protected.
d) Increasing needs of energy can be overcome by this method.
##### Question 27. How do you appreciate efforts of a musician to produce melodious sound using a musical instrument by simultaneously controlling frequency and amplitude of the sounds produced by it.

• The sounds which produce pleasing effect on the ear are called musical sounds.
• Any instrument which produces musical sound is called musical instrument.
• The person who plays a musical instrument to produce melodious sound is called a musician.
• The musician must have control on breathing, concentration on the output of the sound, which is a very hard task.
• For this the musician needs a lot of practise.
• With the musician’s practise and knowledge over musical notes only we can hear melodious sound otherwise it could only be a noise.
• Hence the efforts of a musician are highly appreciable.
##### Question 28. You might have observed that sometimes your pet dog starts barking though no one is seen near in its surroundings or no disturbance heard nearby. Does this observation raise any doubts in your mind about the peculiar behaviour of dog after your understanding about ‘range of hearing the sound’. If yes, write them.

• Dogs can hear sounds of frequencies up to about 50 kHz, which is ultrasonic.
• After hearing this ultrasonics, a dog will bark panicly, though no one is seen near.
• I understood this after studying about ‘range of hearing the sound’.
• Before the knowledge of ‘range of hearing the sound’, I felt that the dogs are barking by seeing some devils, which is a misconception.
• Scientific knowledge helps us to know reasons for many misconcepts.