10th Class Social Studies 18th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years - 1947-77) Textbook Questions and Answers

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Question 1.Identify statements or statements in the bracket that are relevant to statements in italics on left.
(a) Political equality can be identified with (right to get admission in any school, principle of one person one vote, right to enter any religious worship place) ?

Answer: Political equality can be identified with the principle of one person one vote

(b) Universal Adult Franchise in the Indian context meant (allowing all people to vote for any political party, allowing all people to vote in elections, allowing all people to vote for Congress party) ?

Answer: Universal Adult Franchise in the Indian context meant both allowing all people to vote for any political party and allowing all people to vote in elections

(c) Congress dominance would include (being able to attract people from various ideologies; being able to win most states assembly seats after elections; being able to use police force during election) ?

Answer: Congress dominance would include being able to win most states assembly seats after elections

(d) Emergency imposed (restrictions on people rights; ensured eradication of poverty; accepted by all political parties) ?

Answer: Emergency imposed restrictions on people rights

Question 2.What measures were taken to bring in socio-economic change during the initial years after independence?


  • Many measures were taken to bring in socio-economic change during the initial years after independence
  • The Planning Commission was set up
  • The Fifst five Year Plan focussed on agriculture
  • The components of socio-economic change were
  • land reforms
  • agriculture cooperatives c) local self-government
  • Planners felt that it was essential to develop industries and increase employment in service sectors
  • In Second Five Year Plan focus shifted to industries
  • Three types of land reforms were contemplated
  • Abolition of Zamindari System
  • Tenancy reforms and land ceilings
  • Co-operatives were to bring economies of scale and also provide valuable inputs
  • Dams were constructed and were useful to both the agriculture and Industrial sectors
Question 3.What do you understand about one party dominance? Would you consider it as dominance only in elections ot also in terms of ideology? Discuss with reasons?

Answer: One party dominance means the party not only win in elections either in state or in central, but also it has in term of ideology. Due to the following reason. Internally, the Congress party has small groups. This is the benefit to the Congress party. Because the groups took different positions on various issues depending on the interests of the members. This made the Congress appear as it was a party representing diverse interests and positions. This also acts as an inbuilt corrective mechanism with in the ruling party

Question 4.Language became a central rallying point Hi Indian politics on many occasions, either as a unifying force or as a divisive element. Identify these instances and describe them?

Answer: Language as a unifying force

  • The northern states have accepted Hindi as the national language
  • They have their own mother tongues but they have no problem jn accommodating Hindi
  • There is a common uniformity upto some extent in the north which has been brought about , by Hindi
  • Language as a divisive element:
  • The official Languages Act was passed in 1963
  • It made Hindi as the national language
  • The DMK party of Tamilnadu believed that it wps an attempt to foist Hindi on the rest of the country
  • Strikes, dharnas and hartals started all over the state
  • The Congress itself was divided between the pro-Hindi and anti-Hindi camps
  • Some felt that the unity of the country was at stake
  • Telugu, Kannada, Marathi and Gujarathi languages speaking people started a movement for separate states on the basis of their language
Question 5.What were the major changes in political system after 1967 elections?


  • There were many major changes in political system after 1967 elections
  • Elections had become to be taken seriously arid had life of their own
  • Democracy had taken roots in India.and country was moving towards a competitive multi¬¨party system
  • There were basically a coalition of legislators against the Congress in many states
  • Intermediate caste, who had first benefited from land reforms gained political power
  • Many of the coalition of legislators were marked by defection and corruption
  • This period saw a renewal of a regional sentiment in different parts of the country
  • This was also a period of communal tension
Question 6.Think of other ways in which states could have been created and how would they be better than language based reorganization?


  • In India state reorganisation was done on the basis of linguistic principle
  • Other ways in which we could form states may be culture, ethnicity and economy
  • But history provides proof that even nations could not survive on cultural, ethnicity and economy bases
  • Nationalist movement leaders accepted the principle of territorial organisation of the country on a linguistic basis
  • The diverse elements of Indian culture are chiefly represented by the languages of India
  • So no other basis of reorganisation would not have fared better than linguistic reorganisation
Question 7.What measures of Indira Gandhi are called left turn? How do you think this was different from policies of previous decades? Based on your economics chapters describe how it is different from the current policies?


  • Immediately after the victory in 1971 Bangladesh War, using Indira Gandhi popular slogan Garibi Hatao the Congress won with record majority in 1971 general elections
  • In the legislative assembly elections held subsequently in 1972, Congress did well
  • She then had control over both the party as well as the Parliament
  • She nationalised banks, abolished princely pensions which were challenged in courts
  • Constitution was being amended rapidly in the name of socio-economic change, feared the Supreme Court
  • This was called Left turn
  • In 1973, oil prices rose to an all time high, rise in prices, scarcity of food, and unemployment increased
  • Current policies are different from them
  • Government is encouraging private banking and non-banking finance corporations, reducing subsidies, etc
Question 8.In what ways was the Emergency period a set back to the Indian democracy?

Answer: On 25th June 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi imposed an Emergency in the country. Due to this Emergency -

  • General Elections were postponed
  • Many of the fundamental rights were suspended
  • The press was censored
  • Most of political opponents were imprisoned
  • Demolition of slums and forced sterilisation on the name of population control became very unpopular
  • In the absence of civic freedom people could not express their discontent and the government therefore could not take corrective measures
  • Thus, the Emergency period was a setback to the Indian democracy
Question 9.What were the institutional changes that came up after the Emergency?


  • With this emergency, democracy was put on hold
  • Many fundamental rights were suspended
  • There were instances of detention and torture beyond mere violation of civil liberties
  • 42nd Constitutional Amendment brought about a series of changes
  • Excluding the courts from election disputes
  • Strengthening the central government vis-a-vis the state governments
  • Other changes were c) Protection from judiciary challenges to socio-economic legislations, d) Made judiciary subservient to Parliament
  • These weakened the democratic fabric of this country

10th Class Social Studies 18th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years - 1947-77) InText Questions and Answers

10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 248
Question 1.In your opinion have we been able to achieve social equality: think of instances that you would identify as examples of social equality and inequality?


  • We have not been able to achieve social equality
  • Our social structure continues to deny us the principle of one man one value
  • Caste system interrelated economic structure is never allowing us the achievement of social equality
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 249
Question 2.How do you think illiteracy affects elections, especially when it comes to exercising the choice of voting? How do you think this problem can be solved? (OR) How did the Election Commission overcome the problem of illiteracy in the conduct of the first General Election in India?


  • Illiteracy causes difficulty in elections especially when it comes to exercising the choice of voting
  • They cannot read the name in the Ballot paper, to whom he/she wishes to vote
  • This problem was solved by the Election Commission initially by sticking the symbol outside the Ballot box separately
  • Again it allotted symbols of daily life for every contestant for visual identification of the voter
  • We can also print his photo against his name
Question 3.Could we have considered that our country was democratic if all people did not have voting rights?


  • We could not have considered that our country was democratic if all the people did not have voting rights
  • All eligible people shall be given franchise and elections at definite intervals are the tenets of democracy
  • If Universal Adult Franchise was not accepted, then we cannot say ourselves as a democracy
Question 4.Given the literacy rate of tyomen being low, if women were not allowed to vote bow would it affect our policies?


  • Literacy rate of women was low
  • They were not given right to vote
  • Then our policies will not do justice to them
  • Their requirements and difficulties will not be known to us
  • We cannot prepare the bills that suit their needs
Question 5.Being able to conduct regular elections can be considered a clear sign of being able to establish democracy. Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons.


  • Being able to conduct regular elections can be considered a clear sign of being able to establish Democracy
  • I do agree with this statement
  • Reasons:
  • Indian democracy rests on the idea of representation
  • Every adult citizen of above 18 years is given the right to vote regardless of education, property and gender
  • Elections are held periodically to the various representative institutions of a democratic state at three different levels (The centre, the state and the local levels) to facilitate effective functioning
  • Any registered voter who completed 25 years can contest for elections t6 the Lok Sabha or Vidhan Sabha
  • Entire country or state is divided into territorial units called constituencies
  • The work of conducting election to the Parliament and Legislature is entrusted to the Election Commission
  • The procedure for elections is laid down in the Representation of People Act
  • Elections are therefore held in a free and fair manner
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 251
Question 6.Summarise the features that could explain the Congress was able to dominate the political system?


  • In Independent India first three general elections in 1952,1957 and 1962 the Congress won, reducing other participants to almost nothing
  • The Congress consistently won over 70% of seats by obtaining about 45% of the total votes cast
  • The Congress formed the government in many states as well
  • The opposition parties only posed a latent and not a real threat
  • The above features could explain the Congress was able to dominate the political system
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 253
Question 7.Do you think unity nf India wou|d have been better served if linguistic states were not formed?


  • I dont think that the unity of India would have been better without linguistic states
  • Language unites people and it represents the diverse elements of our culture
  • There was popular will for linguistic states
  • Leaders of national movement also accepted linguistic states
  • Moreover, now these states are of great help in consolidating India
Question 8.Why do you think the tribal languages were ignored at this time?


  • When linguistic states were formed dominant languages were considered
  • Tribal languages were not considered. Tribal language have no script
  • Because the population of these tribal language users is very less and sparsely spread
  • Apart from this there was popular will
  • People of dominant languages demanded seperate statesg
Question 9.Do you know how many states and union territories are there in India today?

Answer: Today, in India there are 29 states and 7 union territories.

Question 10.Which are the newest states of India and when were they created?


  • The newest states of India are
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Jharkhand
  • Uttarakhand
  • Telangana
  • Chattisgarh, the 26th state of India was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on Nov. 1, 2000
  • Uttaranchal, the 27th state of India was carved out of Uttar Pradesh on Nov. 9,2000
  • Later it had changed;its name to be Uttarakhand
  • Jharkhand, the 28th state of India was carved of Bihar on November 15, 2000
  • Telangana, the 29th state of India was formed on 2nd June, 2014
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 255
Question 11.If you live in a rural area, find out if institutions like cooperatives were established before 1970 and who became members in it?


  • In rural areas there were institutions like cooperatives
  • Important among them were Primary Agricultural Credit Cooperative Societies
  • Farmers who are practising agriculture were joined as members in it
Question 12.Compare the land reforms carried out in India with that of China or Vietnam?


  • Land reforms were implemented in a half-hearted manner in India
  • While Zamindari system was abolished, redistribution of land to the landless did not take place
  • Whereas land reforms were implemented in China and Vietnam in a whole-hearted manner
  • They were able to redistribute the land to the landless
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 256
Question 13.How did the language policy help foster national unity and integrity?


  • The language policy states the right of each state to have a language of its own (which could be the regional language or English)
  • Communications in states could be in regional languages with English translations
  • English would continue to be the communication language between the centre and the states
  • Civil Service Examinations would be conducted in English rather than in Hindi alone
  • With these all provisions, no state has a problem with the centre, so promoted national unity and integrity
Question 14.Is there a need for a national language ?

Answer: Yes, there is a need for national language to achieve national integrity

  • We are such a vast country with many regional languages
  • Language policy is of help in fostering national unity and integrity
Question 15.Should all languages in India have equal status ? Reflect.


  • In India there are as many as 1,652 languages
  • All languages in India dont have equal status
  • Indian Constitution recognises 22 languages as statutory.
  • Many languages have no script
  • Some tribal languages were neglected. Ex : Oravan
  • Many languages were spoken by few people
  • Taking all things into consideration it will be difficult to accord equal status to all languages
  • According to the Constitution, the citizens have right to protect their language and culture
  • If they provide equal status to all languages, we should protect integrity and unity of our country
  • Yes, all languages should be accorded equal status
  • No regional language should be ignored

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