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Science & Technology Current Affairs July 3rd Week 2017
Author : Admin
Category : Science & Technology Current
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Science & Technology Current Affairs July 3rd Week 2017

 1. Government launches 4 digital initiatives to push e-education.


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President Pranab Mukherjee on the occasion of Guru Purnima launched four major digital initiatives in to push e-education. They are Swayam, Swayam Prabha, National Academic Depository and National Digital Library. All these digital initiatives are operational under Union Ministry of Human Resource and Development. 

Swayam:

It an indigenously designed massive open online course (MOOC), It will host all the courses, taught in classrooms from 9th class till post-graduation and can be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time. It aims to bridge the digital divide for students in e-education.

Swayam Prabha: 

It will provide high quality educational contents, developed by experts, through 32 DTH (direct to home) Television Channels with an aim to bring uniformity in standards of education. It will cover diverse disciplines of all levels of education in various languages. It will be available to all and will be having new content of 4 hours to be telecasted 6 times a day.

National Academic Depository:

It is a digital depository of academic awards for authenticating all certificates issued by institutions. NAD will directly integrate with Boards/Universities which issue Certificates which will be verified, authenticated, accessed and retrieved in a digital depository for purpose of employment, higher education, and loans.

National Digital Library: 

It is a large online library containing 6.5 million books. It provides free access to many books in English and the Indian languages.

2. Scientist create mini Saturns from charged liquid droplets.

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Scientists from Northwestern University in the United States have created miniature versions of Saturn, complete with rings, by electrifying tiny droplets of fluids.

When a drop of electrically conductive liquid is exposed to an electric field, the droplet responds by forming two electrically charged poles. In the previous research it was found that these poles can get pulled towards the sources of the electric field, taking on cone shapes. If the pull is strong enough, the tips of the cones can spray jets of droplets. This effect is known as electrospraying.

In the latest experiments, researchers explored the outcomes seen after drops of liquid is submerged in more electrically conductive fluids-specifically, drops of silicone oil suspended in castor oil. When an electric field is applied to drop of silicone oil, it was observed that drop flattens and emits rings of fluid from its equator that break up into droplets.

If an electric field is strong enough, the equators of these squashed drops emit concentric rings of droplets, making the drops look like miniature versions of Saturn. In these experiments, drops of silicone oil about 1 millimetre wide generated droplets that were about 100 times smaller.

The future advance research may pave the way for generating microscopic and uniform particles and capsules which are used in products such as drugs, inks, cosmetics and paints. It will also explore new materials that can be used to produce “ring of particles” effect.
 
3. Vaccine shows protection against gonorrhea for first time: Scientists.
 

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Scientists from New Zealand for the first time have claimed that vaccine can protect against the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea. They have found that Men B jab vaccine originally developed to stop an outbreak of meningitis B can protect from gonorrhoea.

Scientists claim was based on analysis of vaccination data of about a million adolescents in New Zealand who were vaccinated by Men B jab vaccine between 2004 and 2006. They found that gonorrhoea cases had fallen by 31% in vaccinated adolescents. The bacterium that causes meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, is a very close relative of the bacterium species Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes gonorrhoea. Thus, it appears the Men B jab vaccine is giving “cross-protection” against gonorrhoea.

Scientists claim was based on analysis of vaccination data of about a million adolescents in New Zealand who were vaccinated by Men B jab vaccine between 2004 and 2006. They found that gonorrhoea cases had fallen by 31% in vaccinated adolescents. The bacterium that causes meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, is a very close relative of the bacterium species Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes gonorrhoea. Thus, it appears the Men B jab vaccine is giving “cross-protection” against gonorrhoea.

Gonorrhoea disease (also called the clap) is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It spreads by unprotected sex. Its symptoms include a thick green or yellow discharge from sexual organs, pain when urinating and bleeding between periods in case of in women. In many cases, no symptoms are seen at all. Untreated gonorrhoeae infection can lead to infertility in both genders, pelvic inflammatory disease in women and can be passed on to a child during pregnancy. According to WHO, about 78 million people pick up the sexually transmitted infection each year due to Gonorrhoea.
 
4. NASA’s Juno spacecraft completes flyby over Jupiter’s Great Red Spot.
 
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NASA’s unmanned spacecraft Juno has successfully peered into the Jupiter’s giant storm known as the Great Red Spot. It became first space probe to complete flyby of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot.

The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is a massive storm (cyclone) measuring about 16,000 km in diameter. It is largest known storm in the solar system.  It has been monitored since 1830 and has possibly existed for more than 350 years.

The winds in the storm are clocked at hundreds of km an hour around its outer edges. Little is known about the forces driving it. The spot appears as a deep, red orb surrounded by layers of pale yellow, orange and white. The storm is believed to have been shrinking in recent years.

NASA had launched unmanned spacecraft Juno on August 5, 2011 from Cape Canaveral, Florida as part of its New Frontiers program. It has been orbiting Jupiter, solar system’s largest planet from July 2016.

The spacecraft has been named from Greco-Roman mythology. It is orbiting Jupiter from pole to pole, 5,000 kilometers above planet’s cloud tops. It has mission life istill February 2018.

Its mission is to understand the origin and evolution of Jupiter, investigate the existence of a solid planetary Jupiter’s core, map Jupiter’s intense magnetic field, measure the amount of water and ammonia in the deep atmosphere and observe Jupiter’s aurora.

 5. Scientists discover smallest star known in the universe.

 
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Scientists from University of Cambridge, UK have discovered the smallest star in the universe. It has been named as EBLM J0555-57Ab. The star was identified by SuperWASP, a planet-finding experiment run by several universities. It was detected when it passed in front of its larger parent star, forming an eclipsing stellar binary system.

EBLM J0555-57Ab is located about 600 light years away. It is slightly larger than Saturn in size and may possibly have Earth-sized planets with liquid water in its orbit. It is likely as small as stars can possibly become, as it has just enough mass to enable the fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium at its centre .

The gravitational pull at EBLM J0555-57A’s stellar surface is about 300 times stronger than on Earth. It is likely colder than many of the gas giant exo-planets that have so far been identified. The discovery of EBLM J0555-57A also makes the best possible candidate for detecting Earth-sized planets which can have liquid water on their surfaces, such as TRAPPIST-1, an ultracool dwarf surrounded by seven temperate Earth-sized worlds.

 

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