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Science & Technology Current Affairs July 2nd Week 2017
Author : Admin
Category : Science & Technology Current
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Science & Technology Current Affairs July 2nd Week 2017

1. Reliance Jio launches world’s longest 100Gbps submarine cable system.

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Mukesh Ambani led Reliance Jio Infocomm has launched the Asia-Africa-Europe (AAE-1) submarine cable system. It is claimed to be world’s longest 100Gbps technology-based submarine system. It stretches for over 25,000km from Marseille, France to Hong Kong. It will have 21 cable landings across Asia and Europe. Using it, Jio will continue to offer its customers the most exceptional high speed internet and digital service experience.

The AAE-1 project is a combination of leading telecom service providers from Europe, the Middle East and Asia. It will seamlessly link with other cable systems and fibre networks to deliver direct access to all global markets. It will feature diversified Points of Presence (PoP) in Asia (Hong Kong and Singapore), with three onward connectivity options in Europe (France, Italy and Greece). The cable system will pass through critical hubs, serving the demand for video centric data bandwidth that supports all types of communications, applications and content within India and beyond. The advanced design and route of AAE-1 system will offer one of the lowest latency routes between Hong Kong, India, Middle East and Europe. Using it, Reliance Jio will provide the Network Operations & Management for AAE-1 Cable System. Its Network Operations Center (NOC) will use a state of the art facility in Navi Mumbai.
 
2. Scientists develop world’s sharpest laser.


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Scientists from Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have developed the world’s sharpest laser with record-breaking precision. This precision can be useful for various applications such as optical atomic clocks, radioastronomy, precision spectroscopy, testing the theory of relativity and carry out new precision measurements on ultracold atoms.

A laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. Major difference between laser and other sources of light is that, laser emits light coherently. Laser light is used in numerous applications in industry, medicine and information technologies. It also brought about a real revolution in fields of research and in metrology etc.

Theoretically, laser light has only one colour, wavelength or frequency. In reality, however, there is always a certain linewidth. This newly developed laser has linewidth of only 10 miliHertz (0.01 Hz), — closer to the ideal laser than ever before. In addition to the new laser’s extremely small linewidth, researchers also have found out that the emitted laser light’s frequency was more precise than what had ever been achieved before.
 
3. NASA developing first asteroid deflection mission
 

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NASA is developing Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), the first-ever mission that will deflect a near-Earth asteroid. The mission will help to test the systems that will allow mankind to protect the planet from potential cosmic body impacts in the future.

The DART will be built and managed by the John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). It will be NASA’s first mission to demonstrate kinetic impactor technique.  The target for DART is an asteroid called Didymos that will have a distant approach to Earth in October 2022 and then again in 2024. 

The asteroid Didymos (Greek word for twin) is an asteroid binary system that consists of two bodies: Didymos A (about 780 metres in size), and Didymos B (about 160 metres in size), smaller asteroid orbiting Didymos A. DART will impact only the smaller of the two bodies, Didymos B. 

After launch, DART will fly to Didymos and use an APL- developed onboard autonomous targeting system to aim itself at Didymos B. The refrigerator-sized spacecraft will strike the smaller body at a speed about 6 km/s i.e. about nine times faster than a bullet. Earth-based observatories will observe the impact and the resulting change in the orbit of Didymos B around Didymos A. It will allow scientists to better determine the capabilities of kinetic impact as an asteroid mitigation strategy.

 4.MERIT app and e-Bidding portal for utilization of domestic coal in IPP Power Stations launched.

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Union Minister of State for Power, Coal, New & Renewable Energy and Mines, Piyush Goyal has launched the ‘MERIT app (Merit Order Despatch of Electricity for Rejuvenation of Income and Transparency)’ and the e-bidding portal for offering an e-Bidding solution to States. 

The app and the portal would help the states to select Independent Power Producers (IPPs) for procurement of power by transferring their domestic coal under the scheme of flexibility in utilisation of domestic coal.

The launch of the app and the portal is aimed at promoting the vision of ‘Minimum Government and Maximum Governancee’through ‘Speed, Skill and Scale’. It would result in optimum utilisation of Coal and would save the consumer around Rs. 20,000 crores in the next five years. It would increase the transparency and accountability.

The advantages of MERIT app: 

  • Empowers the consumer. 
  • Promotes participative governance.
  • Transparency in information dissemination relating to marginal variable cost and source wise purchase of electricity. 
  • Promotes economy and efficiency in operation. 
  • Optimises the procurement costs. 
  • Facilitates renewable integration and handling of the variability and uncertainty of renewables

5. Researchers: Soil of Mars may be Toxic to Alien Life.

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According to the research carried out by Researchers at the University of Edinburgh in the UK, surface of Mars has chemical compounds called perchlorates that can wipe out living organisms.

The researchers have found that the chemical compounds found on the surface of Mars when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light can kill the bacteria which are commonly carried by spacecraft. This finding has given a blow to the hopes of finding alien life on the surface of the Mars.

The research has also suggested that the effect of perchlorates gets compounded by two other type of chemicals found on the Mars such as iron oxides and hydrogen peroxide. With the presence of all three chemicals, the scientists saw a more than 10-fold increase in death of bacteria cells when compared to those caused by the perchlorates alone.

Scientists carried out an investigation to study the potential reactivity of perchlorates and their effect on Bacillus subtilis, a bacterium which is commonly found on spacecraft and also on the soils and rocks. It was found out that when magnesium perchlorate was exposed to UV radiation as on Mars then it becomes capable of killing bacteria more effectively than UV light alone.

The above study has concluded that the Martian surface may be highly damaging to living cells owing to a toxic mix of oxidants, iron oxides, perchlorates and UV energy.

6. “JIGYASA” – Student-Scientist connect Programme.


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Jigyasa, a student- scientist connect programme has been launched by the government in New Delhi. The programme would be implemented by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in collaboration with Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS).

The main focus of the programme is to connect school students and scientists as well as to extend student’s classroom learning to a very well-planned research laboratory based learning. The programme has been inspired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of a new India and “Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR)” of scientific community and institutions.

The JIGYASA programme is expected to inculcate the culture of inquisitiveness and scientific temper on the minds of children and school teachers. The programme will connect 1151 Kendriya Vidyalayas with 38 National Laboratories of CSIR and will target 100,000 students and 1000 teachers every year. Under this programme, the CSIR would launch a talent hunt among the visiting students for furthering the cause of scientific development.

“JIGYASA” programme would be one of the major initiatives of the CSIR at the national level during its Platinum Jubilee Celebration Year. The model of engagement under JIGYASA between the CSIR and the KVS will include Student Residential Programmes; Scientists as Teachers and Teachers as Scientists; Lab-specific activities / Onsite Experiments; Visits of Scientists to Schools/Outreach Programmes; Science and Maths Clubs; Popular Lecture Series/ demonstration programme at Schools; Student Apprenticeship Programmes; Science Exhibitions; Projects of National Children’s Science Congress; Teacher Workshops; and Tinkering Laboratories.

 

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