NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders is designed and prepared by the best teachers across India. All the important topics are covered in the exercises and each answer comes with a detailed explanation to help students understand concepts better. These NCERT solutions play a crucial role in your preparation for all exams conducted by the CBSE, including the JEE.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

1. Can distorted body image lead to eating disorders? Classify the various forms of it.

Ans. Term 'eating disorder' refers to serious disruption of the eating habit or the appetite manifested as distorted body image. The main types are:
Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa
Binge eating
In anorexia nervosa, the individual has:
A distorted body image that leads him/her to see himself/herself as overweight.
Often refusing to eat, exercising compulsively and developing unusual habits such as refusing to eat in front of others.
Anorexic may loose large amounts of weight and even starve himself/herself to death.
In bulimia nervosa,
The individual may eat excessive amounts of food, then purge his/her body of food by using medicines.such as laxatives or diuretics or by vomiting.
The person often feels disgusted and ashamed when She/he binges and is relieved of tension and negative emotions after purging.
In binge eating, there are frequent episodes of out-of-control eating.

2. "Physicians make diagnosis looking at a person's physical symptoms." How are psychological disorders diagnosed?

Ans. Psychological disorders are diagnosed on the basis of two classifications, i.e., DSM or IV and ICD-X.
Classification of psychological disorders consists of a list of categories of specific psychological disorders grouped into various classes on the basis of some shared characteristics.
International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) is classification of behavioural and mental disorders.
ICD-10 refers to international classification of diseases and its 10th revision is being used.
It is developed by WHO under one broad heading ‘Mental Disorders’ which is based on symptoms.
(The classification scheme is officially used in India)
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has published an official manual of psychological disorders:
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IVth Edition (DSM-IV).
It Evaluates the patient on five axes or dimensions rather than just one broad aspect of ‘mental disorder’.
These dimensions relate to biological, psychological, social and other aspects.
Uses of Classification:
Classifications are useful because they enable psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers to communicate with each other about the disorders.
Helps in understanding the causes of psychological disorders and the processes involved in their development.
It helps in Clinical diagnosis.

3. Distinguish between obsessions and compulsions. (Delhi Board 2014)

Ans. Sometimes anxiety and tension are associated with obsessions—persistent unwanted thoughts, impulses or ideas or compulsions—seemingly irrational behaviours repeatedly carried out in a fixed, repetitive way.
People with obsessive-compulsive disorders find their obsessions or compulsions distressing and debilitating but feel unable.to stop them,
The compulsive actions are usually carried on to alleviate the anxiety caused by obsessions.
A person provoked with anxious thoughts may try to block them out by compulsively counting steps while walking. Another person obsessed with the idea that he is guilty or dirty, may wash his hands every few minutes, sometimes till the bleed.
The symptoms of OCD include a contamination – an obsession of contamination followed by washing or compulsive avoidance of the object. Shame and disgust and the feeling of being easily contaminated are common. Patients usually believe that the contamination is spread from object to object or person to person by the slightest contact.
(a)Pathological Doubt—Obsession of doubt followed by the compulsion of checking. Patients have an obsessional self-doubt and are always feeling guilty about having forgotten something. The checking may involve multiple trips back – to the house to check the stove.
(b)Intrusive Thoughts—repetitive thoughts of a sexual or aggressive act that is reprehensible to the patient. This is usually not followed by compulsions. .
(c)Symmetry—he need for symmetry and precision, which can lead to a compulsion of slowness. Patients can literally take an hour to shave their faces or eat a meal.
(d)Other symptom patterns may include religions obsessions and compulsive hoardings as well as trichotillomania (compulsive half pulling) and nail-biting.

4. Can a long-standing pattern of deviant behaviour be considered abnormal? Elaborate.

Ans. Abnormal behaviour is a relative term. It is a matter of degree. It is qualitative
difference. There is no quantitative difference between normal and abnormal.
The word 'Abnormal' literally means away from the normal. It implies deviation from some clearly defined norms or standards.
Various Views to explain Abnormality:
1.Abnormality as Deviation from Social Norms:
Each society has social norms, which are stated or unstated rules for proper conduct. Behaviours, thoughts and emotions that break societal norms are called abnormal.
Behaviour violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it. Violation of norms makes abnormality a relative concept; various forms of unusual behavioural can be tolerated depending on the prevailing cultural norms. Yet this component is also at once too broad and too narrow.
A society’s values may change over time. Serious questions have been raised about this definition.
It is based on the assumption that socially accepted behaviour is not abnormal, and that normality is nothing more than conformity to social norms.
This approach has major shortcomings and there are serious questions against this approach.
2. Abnormality in terms of Maladaptive Behaviour:
Recent approach views abnormal behaviour as maladaptive. Many psychologists believe that the best criterion for determining the normality of behaviour is not whether society accepts it but whether it facilitates the well-being of the individual and eventually of the group to which he/she belongs.
Well-being is not simply maintenance and survival but also includes growth and fulfilment. Maladaptive behaviour refers to—Behaviour that causes problems in life.
— It is inadequate reaction to the stressful situation.
— It ranges from relatively minor but troubling fears to severe distortions of reality.
3. Concept of four D’s: Now-a-days many psychologists believe that if an individual’s behaviour manifests significant deviance, distress, danger and dysfunction in his/ her behavioural pattern, then it should be treated as abnormal.

5. While speaking in public, the patient changes topics frequently. Is this a positive or a negative symptom of schizophrenia? Describe the other symptoms and sub-types of schizophrenia.

Ans. While speaking in public, the patient changes topics frequently. This is a symptom of derailment. This is one of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia; is the descriptive term to a group of psychotic disorders in which personal, social and occupational functioning deteriorate as a result of disturbed thought processes, strong perceptions, unusual emotional states, and motor abnormalities.
The social and psychological causes of schizophrenia are tremendous, both to patients as well as to their families and society.
Symptoms of schizophrenia:
Positive Symptoms—comprise excesses and provide reduction of distress in the patient. It comprises excesses of thought, emotion, and behaviour.
Negative Symptoms—deficits of thought, emotion and behaviour.
Psychomotor Symptoms.
Positive Symptoms of’Pathological Excesses :
1.Disorganized Thinking and Speech:
People with schizophrenia may not be able to think logically, and may speak in peculiar ways.
Formal thought disorders can make communication extremely difficult.
It refers to problems in the organization of ideas and in speaking so that a listener can understand.
These include derailment, i.e., rapidly shifting from one topic to another so that the normal structure of thinking becomes illogical (loosening of association, derailed).
Inventing new words, phrases, i.e., neologism and persistent and inappropriate repetition of the same thoughts.
2.Delusion: It is a false belief that is firmly held on inadequate grounds. It is not affected by emotional argument, and has no basis in reality.
Delusion of Persecution: belief that they are being plotted against, spied on, slandered, threatened, attacked or deliberately victimized.
Delusions of Reference: in which they attach special and personal meaning to the actions of others or to objects and event. They believe that they can read others mind.
Delusions of Grandeur: people believe themselves to be specially empowered with supernatural powers.
Delusions of Control: they believe that their feelings, thoughts and actions are controlled by others.
3. Hallucinations: Perceptions that occur in the absence of external stimuli.
Auditory hallucinations are most common in schizophrenia. Patients hear sounds or voices that speak words, phrases and sentences directly to the patients (second person hallucination) or talk to one another referring to the patient as he/she (third person hallucination).
Tactile hallucinations (i.e., forms of tingling, burning).
Somatic hallucinations (i.e., something happening inside the body such as a snake crawling inside one’s stomach)
Visual hallucinations (i.e., vague perceptions of colour or distinct visions of people or objects).
Gustatory hallucinations (i.e., food or drink taste strange).
Olfactory hallucinations (i.e., smell of smoke).
4. Inappropriate Effect, i.e., emotions that are unsuited to the situation.
Negative symptoms are 'pathological deficits'
Alogia—poverty of speech, i.e., a reduction in speech and speech content.
Blunted effect—reduced expression of emotions.
Flat effect—no expression of emotions.
Avolition—social withdrawal.
Psychomotor Symptoms:
Schizophrenics move less spontaneously or make odd gestures. These symptoms may take extreme forms known as catatonia.
Catatonic stupor: motionless and silent for long stretches of time.
Catatonic rigidity: maintaining a rigid, upright posture for hours.
Catatonic posturing: assuming awkward, bizarre positions for long periods.

6. Describe how life skills can help meet life’s challenges.

Ans. Life skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enables individual to deal effectively with stressful situations.
Few such skills are as follows:
(i)Assertiveness:
It helps to communicate, clearly and confidently, our feelings, needs, wants and thoughts.
It is ability of an individual to say ‘no’ to a request which is against his wishes.
If one is assertive then he or she feels confident high self-esteem and maintains his/her identity.
(ii)Time Management:
Learning time management determines quality of life.
It is setting the priorities, goals and values in life.
Each day making list of things one wants to accomplish:
Arranging work schedule.
Changing perception of time.
Setting aside time in schedule for exercise and leisure activities
Learning to plan time.
(iii)Rational Thinking:
It is challenging the distorted thinking and irrational beliefs.
Deriving the anxiety provoking thoughts.
Making positive statements.
It is learning to ignore negative thoughts and images.
(iv) Improving Relationship: It consists following essential skills:
(a) Listening to what the other person is saying.
(b) Expressing what one feels and thinks.
(c)Accepting the other person’s opinions and feelings, even if they are different from your own.
(d) Avoiding jealously and sulking behaviour.
(v) Self-care: Healthy mind in healthy body.
Learning right pattern of breathing i.e., relaxed, slow, stomach-centered breathing from diaphragm.
Avoiding environmental stress like pollutions, because it affects our mood.
(vi)Overcoming Unhelpful Habits: Perfectionism, avoidance, procrastination and our strategies which provides short-term gain but makes the individual vulnerable to stress.
Perfectionists want to get everything just as they want which is not always possible. Avoidance is ignoring the issue and refusal to face it or accept it.
Procrastination means putting off what we know we need to do, i.e., postponing the things like ‘I will do it later’ just to avoid confrontation due to the fear of failure.

7. Describe briefly four factors which facilitate development of positive health. (CBSE 2013) (OR)
Discuss the factors that lead to positive health and well-being.

Ans. Factors facilitating positive health and well-being are:
1.Diet: Diet can affect health independently or may enhance or modify the effects of stress in combination with other factors:
(a) How much nutrition one needs depends on one’s activity level, genetic structure,climate and health history. In fact, there is no one diet, which is ideal for everyone, in all situations.
(b) Stress is supposed to affect diet and weight in many wrays. People, who are under stress or in a negative moods are often seen eating more. They seek ‘comfort foods’ or foods that make them feel better.
(c)Stress may increase consumption of less healthy foods. Such people gain weight and loose stamina to fight stress.
(d)Obesity and weight gain is a problem for a section of the society. A much larger section of the society, which is below the poverty line, suffer from malnutrition.
(e)In the condition of poverty, women are the one who are most malnourished. Studies have shown that in India diets of female children and women are inadequate due to discriminatory practices.
2. Exercise:
Exercise is directly related to promoting positive health.
Two kinds of physical exercises essential for good health are ‘stretching exercises’ such as yogic asanas and ‘aerobic exercises’ such as jogging, swimming and cycling.
Stretching exercises have a calming effect.
Aerobic exercises increase the arousal level of the body.
Yogic asanas provide systematic stretching to all the muscles and joints of the body and massages the glands and other body organs.
Regular exercise reduces stress because it improves efficiency of vital body organs and improves immune system.
Positive health and well-being come through a positive attitude of the mind.
Positive health is the state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well¬being. It is not merely the absence of disease.
Positive health comprises high quality of personal relationships, a sense of purpose in life, self regard, mastery of life skills and resilience to stress, trauma and change.
3.Positive Attitude:
Positive health and well-being can be realized by:
Perceiving the reality fairly accurately.
Tolerating and understanding different points of view.
Having a sense of purpose in life.
Having a sense of responsibility, accepting blame for failures and taking credit for success.
Being open to new ideas, activities, or ways of doing things.
Having a good sense of humour, to be able to laugh at oneself and absurdities of life helps to see things in their proper perspective.
4.Positive Thinking:
Positive thinking leads to a belief that adversity can be handled successfully whereas negative thinking and pessimism anticipate disaster.
Optimism, which is the inclination to expect favourable life outcomes is directly linked to psychological and physical well-being.
Optimists use more problem-focused coping and seek advice and help from others. This optimism function helps the individual to cope up stress effectively.

8. How does stress affect the immune system?

Ans. Stress can cause illness by impairing the workings of the immune system. The immune system guards the body against attackers, both from within and outside. The white blood cells (leucocytes) within the immune system identify and destroy foreign bodies (antigens) such as viruses. It also leads to the production of antibodies. There are several kinds of white blood cells or leucocytes within the immune system, including T cells, B cells and natural killer cells. T cells destroy invaders, and T-helper cells increase immunological activity. It is these T-helper cells that are attacked by the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus causing Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). B cells produce antibodies. Natural killer cells are involved in the fight against both viruses and tumours.

9. Give an example of a life event which is likely to be stressful. Suggest reasons why it is likely to cause different degrees of stress to the person experiencing it.

Ans. Loosing a long-term job is a life event which is likely to be a cause of stress to an individual.
A person’s response to stress largely depends on how the events are appraised or interpreted.
This was explained by Lazorus in his Cognitive theory of stress.
According to this theory, stress depends on his primary or secondary appraisal. A new or changing event is positive, negative or neutral.
A negative event, such as loosing a long-term job, can be appraisal for its harm, instead a challenge.
If it is appraised as a threat, which may result in future damage, it will result in high levels of stress.
If it appraised as a challenge, then the individual, who lost the job, will have more confident expectations of the ability to cope with the stressful event, overcome it.
If appraised as a harm, assessment of the damage, which has already been caused by the event, will result in high stress.
Through secondary apptaisal, one’s coping abilities and resources are analysed as to whether they are sufficient in meeting the harm, threat or challenge.

10. Given what you know about coping strategies, what suggestions would you give to your friends to avoid stress in their everyday fives?

Ans. High school students these days avoid extremely stressful fives, with increasing completion, expectations and demands. Therefore, I would suggest ‘task-oriented strategy’ as explained by Endler and Parker, to be an effective means in coping with stress.
Task-oriented coping involves:
1.Obtaining information about a stressful situation.
2.Deciding our priorities.
3.Dealing directly with the stressful situation.
Such an approach helps during exams and project deadlines.
I would also suggest the adoption of positive attitude and thinking which promotes health and well-being.
A positive attitude where the individual has a fairly accurate perception of reality; ability to take credit for success and blame for failure; acceptance and tolerance for other’s view points.
Positive thinking interns of being optimistic. Optimism points towards the inclination to expect favourable life outcomes. An optimist will always use problem-focused coping and try and find the source of stress. Relaxation Techniques, Exercise, Balanced Diet all contribute significantly to stress reduction.

11. Reflect on the environmental factors that have (a)a positive impact on the being and (b) a negative effect.

Ans. Until recently, catastrophic events were not studied systematically, because of their infrequent and unpredictable occurrence. However, because the survivors of these devastating events often experience the severe psychological aftermath termed 'post-traumatic stress disorder'. Whether large-scale natural disasters produce lasting psychological effects, however, remains a source of controversy. Some research shows evidence of long-term psychological effects, whereas other studies show that the psychological impact of natural disasters is minimal. In certain respects, the psychological trauma that results from human-produced disasters can be more dramatic and long term in its scope than natural disasters. Several factors seem to contribute to this phenomenon. One important factor seems to be control. Human-produced disasters are usually the result of human error; but we expect that adequate precautions will be taken to prevent human error. Thus, when disaster strikes, our expectations are violated, leading to a loss of control. In contrast, we do not expect to have control over hurricanes, earthquakes, or other types of natural disasters and accept them as fate. A second factor has to do with the consequences associated with each type of disaster. Natural disasters, while large in scope, tend to be clearly marked and limited in time. In contrast, human-produced disasters—such as the contamination of ground water with toxic chemicals—can, potentially exert their effects for many years. For example, exposure to toxic chemicals can increase people’s risk of developing cancer or produce genetic damage. Moreover, the psychological trauma combined with the uncertainty regarding when or if these consequences will appear can produce chronic stress-related problems.

12. We know that certain life-style factors can cause stress and may lead to diseases like cancer and coronary heart disease, yet we are unable to change our behaviour. Explain 1 why?

Ans. Life-style is the overall pattern of decisions and behaviours that determine a person’s health and quality of life. An individual, when stressed, is more likely to expose himself/herself to pathogens—agents causing physical illness. Stressed individuals have poor nutritional habits, disturbed sleeping patterns, tendency to engage in health-risking behaviours such as intake of stimulants such as caffeine, alcohol, cigarettes, drugs like tranquil lies such health impairing behaviours develop gradually and provide pleasant experiences temporarily, but have detrimental long-term consequences. As they are addictive, and pleasurable, individuals using these psychoactive substances are unable to give them up.
•Such type of life-style ultimately cause serious health hazards like cancer, diabetes and coronary heart diseases.
•Knowing that faulty lifystyle causes various physical and psychological hazards.Still people continue, because the consequences and side effects are not likely to occur immediately. Their effects get manifested after several years. So people ignore them. Because they are aware with the side effects. They develop anxiety because of inconsistency in their attitude and behaviour but because this lifestyle becomes a part of their habit pattern. So they find it very difficult to change and continue such hazardous lifestyle and ultimately it causes a stage of burn out.

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  • C H VAISHAVI
  • 2018-May-29 18:18:18
Cbse result by name
  • varunsai sanne
  • 2018-May-29 16:00:17
Xth results 2018
  • varunsai sanne
  • 2018-May-29 15:44:24
Xth results 2018
  • Yalagala Srihari
  • 2018-May-29 13:04:27
Exam results
  • Alpesh Dhamale
  • 2018-May-29 11:36:50
Nice article my baby wait for exam result i hope this year pass percentage may be increase
  • m. mohan rao
  • 2018-May-28 11:03:47
hi, s me cbse 10 class 2018 results
  • akshaya
  • 2018-May-26 10:22:07
at what time resilts are going to today
  • Velupala Ashwarya
  • 2018-May-15 11:01:52
My result
  • Ramu
  • 2018-May-12 16:09:34
good information