NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Environment and Natural Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Environment and Natural Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Environment and Natural Resources is designed and prepared by the best teachers across India. All the important topics are covered in the exercises and each answer comes with a detailed explanation to help students understand concepts better. These NCERT solutions play a crucial role in your preparation for all exams conducted by the CBSE, including the JEE.

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

1. What does the UNEP stand for?

Ans. UNEP stands for the United Nations Environment Programme to hold international conferences to promote coordination to effective response to environmental problems.

2. What is Agenda 21?

Ans. Agenda 21 is a list of developed practices ecological responsibility to promote sustainable development.

3. What do you mean by Global Commons?

Ans. Global Commons are the common governance by international community over the areas or regions which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state or authority.

4. What is UNFCCC?

Ans. The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention Climate Change (UNFCCC) provides that the parties should act to protect the climate system on the basis of equity and in accordance with the common but differentiated responsibilities.

5. Suggest any two steps to be taken by the government to check pollution and save environment.

Ans. (i) India's National Auto-fuel Policj7 mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles. The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency.
(ii) The Electricity Act of2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.

6.Mention any two outcomes of Rio- Summit.

Ans. 1. It provided a consensus to combine economic growth with ecological responsibility for sustainable development.
2. It recommended a list of development practices called Agenda 21 which induced climatic change, bio¬diversity, forestry and development practices.

7. Give any two environmental concerns of global politics.

Ans. 1. Ozone layer depletion is an alarming concern for ecosystem.
2. Loss of fertility of agricultural land • due to extreme use of fertilizers and overgrazed grasslands.

8. Explain the most obvious threat to the survival of indigenous people.

Ans. The most obvious threat to the survival of indigenous people is the loss of land which was occupied by their ancestrals. The loss of land referred to a loss of their economic resource also.

9. How did Earth Summit draw attention of global politics towards environmental issues?

Ans. The Earth Summit drew attention of global politics towards environmental issues because it produced conventions to deal with climate change, biodiversity, forestry and recommended a list of development practices called Agenda 21 which combined economic growth with ecological responsibility known as 'Sustainable Development' as well as Earth Summit laid stress on the cooperation of states to conserve, protect, restore the health and integrity of the earth's ecosystems.

10. Mention the major problems of ecological issues.

Ans. 1. Common environmental agenda could not get common consensus due to vague scientific methods.
2. Management of outer space is influenced by North-South inequalities.
3. Technology and industrial development are also the issues over earth's atmosphere and ocean floor.
4. Ozone hole over Antarctic also revealed the opportunity as well as dangers inherent in tackling global environment problems.

11. What is Kyoto Protocol?

Ans. 1. Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement signed in 1997 in Kyoto for setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions.
2. Certain gases like Carbon dioxide, Methane, Hydro-fluoro Carbons etc. are considered responsible for global warming.
3. This global warming may rise the global temperature to have catastrophic consequences for life on earth.

12. What do you mean by common property?

Ans. Common property refers to the rights and duties of a group together over a natural resources with the following norms:
1. The group members enjoy rights and duties both over nature, levels of use and the maintenance of a given resource.
2. In India, many village communities have defined members' rights and responsibilities through mutual understanding.
3. The institutional arrangement for the actual management of sacred groves on state owned forest land appropriately fit the description of common property.

13.Is there any difference between the prospectives adopted by the rich and the poor nations to protect the Earth? Explain.

Ans. Yes, the rich and the poor nations adopted different prospectives to protect the earth at Rio-Summit:
1. The rich countries were known as Global North whereas the poor countries were called Global South.
2. Northern states showed concern with ozone depletion and global warming whereas southern states showed
? concern for economic development and environmental management.

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