Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development is designed and prepared by the best teachers across India. All the important topics are covered in the exercises and each answer comes with a detailed explanation to help students understand concepts better. These NCERT solutions play a crucial role in your preparation for all exams conducted by the CBSE, including the JEE.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

Topics and Subtopics in Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 Human Development:
Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
Question 1.(i) Which one of the following best describes development?
  • (a) an increase in size
  • (b) a constant in size
  • (c) a positive change in quality
  • (d) a simple change in the quality
  • Answer:
  • (c) a positive change in quality
Question 1.(ii) Which one of the following scholars introduced the concept of Human Development?
  • (a) Prof. Amartya Sen
  • (b) Ellen C Semple
  • (c) Dr. Mahabub-ul-Haq
  • (d) Ratzelv
  • Answer:
  • (c) Dr. Mahabub-ul-Haq
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
Question 2.(i) What are the three basic areas of Human development?
Answer:

Access to resources: It is taken as an indicator of economic condition and ability of individuals to purchase goods of their demands. The indicator used to determine this is per capital income, which shows purchasing power of individuals in terms of dollars.
Health: Longevity of people of the country indicates the availability of health care services and facilities in the country. Country with higher life expectancy tends to have higher HDI. Education: The adult literacy rate and gross enrollment ratio represents access to knowledge.

Question 2.(ii) Name the four main components of human development.
Answer:

The four main pillars of human development are the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words:
Question 3.(i) What do you understand by the term Human development?
Answer:

Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq introduced the concept of human development. He described human development as a development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives. People are central to all development under this concept. These choices are not fixed but keep on changing. The basic goal of human development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.

A meaningful life is not just a long one. It must be a life with some purpose. This means that people must be healthy, be able to develop their talents, participate in society and be free to achieve their goals by full access to resources, education and health facilities. There should be no hindrance to a person’s progress due to deprivation of life chances. Leading a long and healthy life, being able to gain knowledge and having enough means to be able to live a decent life are the most important aspects of human development. Building people’s capabilities in areas of health, education and access to resources is therefore, important in enlarging their choices. If people do not have capabilities in these areas, their choices also get limited.

Question 3.(ii) What do equity and sustainability refer to within the concept of human development?
Answer:

Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste. It aims at providing equal opportunities to all with no special privileges or restriction to any person or group of persons. It is essential for human development to ensure access to resources in order to fulfill choices and lead a meaningful life.
For example, in any country, it is interesting to see which group the most of the school dropouts belong to. This should then lead to an understanding of the reasons for such behavior. In India, a large number of women and persons belonging to socially and economically backward groups drop out of school. This shows how the choices of these groups get limited by not having access to knowledge. Sustainability can be defined as “using resources in a way that fulfill the needs of present generation without compromising on their availability for future generations.” Sustainability refers to continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities. All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future. Misuse of any of these resources will lead to fewer opportunities for future generations.
Example; If the key resource of coal is being overused by the present generation, it will lead to its paucity in future. When adequate coal will not be available to future generation, the power generation capability wifi be hindered which in turn will affect several infrastructural, industrial and other activities, which in turn will negatively affect the available choices and quality of life of future generations.

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