Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 3 Population Composition

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 3 Population Composition

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 3 Population Composition is designed and prepared by the best teachers across India. All the important topics are covered in the exercises and each answer comes with a detailed explanation to help students understand concepts better. These NCERT solutions play a crucial role in your preparation for all exams conducted by the CBSE, including the JEE.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

Topics and Subtopics in Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 3 Population Composition:
Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
Question 1.(i) Which one of the following has caused the sex ratio of the United Arab Emirates to be low?
  • (a) Selective migration of male working population
  • (b) High birth rate of males
  • (c) Low birth rate of females
  • (d) High out migration of females
  • Answer:
  • (a) Selective migration of male working population
Question 1.(ii) Which one of the following figures represents the working age group of the population? (in years)
  • (a) 15-65 years
  • (b) 15-54 years
  • (c) 15-66 years
  • (d) 15-59 years
  • Answer:
  • (d) 15-59 years
Question 1.(iii) Which one of the following countries has the highest sex ratio in the world?
  • (a) Latvia
  • (b) United Arab Emirates
  • (c) Japan
  • (d) France
  • Answer:
  • (a) Latvia
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
Question 2.(i) What do you understand by population composition?
Answer:

People of any country are diverse in many respects. Each person is unique in his own way. People can be distinguished by their age, sex and their place of residence. The entire gamut of people residing in a particular place along with their growth, distribution and variety may be termed as its population composition.

Question 2.(ii) What is the significance of age-structure?
Answer:

Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups. This is an important indicator of population composition, since a large size of population in the age group of 15-59 indicates a large working population. A greater proportion of population above 60 years represents an ageing population which requires more expenditure on health care facilities. Similarly high proportion of young population would mean that the region has a high birth rate and the population is youthful.

Question 2.(iii) How is sex ratio measured?
Answer:

Sex ratio in the world is calculated as number of males per thousand of females in a population.
Sex ratio = (No. of males)/(No. of females) × lOOO
In countries like India sex ratio is calculated as number of females per thousand of males.
Sex ratio = (No. of females)/ (No. of males) × 1000

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words:
Question 3.(i) Describe the rural-urban composition of the population.
Answer:

The division of population into rural and urban is based on the residence. This division is necessary because rural and urban life styles differ from each other in terms of livelihood and social conditions. The age-sex-occupational structure, density of population and level of development vary between rural and urban population is also dependent on the state of development of a countiy.
The more progressed a country is with respect to its development, more number of people are engaged in non-primary activities, thus leading to shift from rural areas to urban areas. Moreover, industrialization also makes headway into the rural countryside, constructing new towns in hitherto traditionally agrarian areas, and therefore the population that was originally rural, becomes urban now. The criterion for classifying settlement as rural or urban varies from country to country. In general terms in rural areas more people are engaged in primary activities whereas in urban areas majority of population is associated with secondary or tertiary sectors.
The sex composition of rural and urban settlements varies between developed and developing countries. In the developed countries like the Western European nation due to security and availability of jobs women move out to urban areas. Farming is mostly mechanized there hence men tend to stay in rural areas and look after farming activities. Whereas a completely contrary picture can be seen in developing countries like India where due to lack of security, housing, job opportunities females tend to stay back in rural areas and look after farming whereas male members move out to urban areas in search of working opportunities,

Question 3.(ii) Discuss the factors responsible for imbalances in the sex-age found in different parts of the world and occupational structure.
Answer:

The factors responsible for imbalances in the sex-age found in different parts of the world with focus on occupational structure are as follows:
The working population (in the age group of 15-59) takes part in various occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, construction, commercial transport, services, communication and other unclassified services, being employed in the four sectors of the economy.
That work force is a clear indicator of the level of development, particularly economic and social development. This is because only a developed economy with industries and infrastructure can accommodate more workers in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sector. If the economy is still in the primitive stages, then the proportion of people engaged in primary activities would be high as it involves extraction of natural resources. Moreover, the age structure of a country also is an indicator of the level of development. A large working population shows the progress of a nation, and a large dependent population of children and retired citizens show a burden on the economy of the country, dragging its developmental processes down. A higher participation of women in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors also is a strong indicator of the progress of a nation.
The sex composition of rural and urban settlements varies between developed and developing countries. In the developed countries like the Western European nation due to security and availability of jobs women move out to urban areas. Farming there is mostly mechanized hence men tend to stay in rural areas and look after farming activities. Whereas a completely contrary picture can be seen in developing countries like India where due to lack of security, housing, job opportunities, females tend to stay back in rural areas and look after farming whereas male members move out to urban areas in search of working opportunities.

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