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Science & Technology Current Affairs April 4th Week 2021

Rising Prevalence of U.K. Strain in Delhi:

The proportion of genome samples sequenced from COVID-19 cases in the state of Delhi containing the U.K. variant (B.1.1.7) has increased from 28% in the second week of March to 50% in the final week.
♦ The N501Y mutation in the U.K. strain is known to amplify virus transmission, leading to increased numbers and, as a result, increased disease incidence and mortality.
♦ Along with Punjab, Chhattisgarh, and Gujarat, Delhi was one of the states where cases of the UK strain in the general public far outnumbered those found among foreign visitors and their contacts.
♦ A mutation is simply a modification in the genome`s letter sequence. Virus mutations are an unavoidable aspect of evolution.
♦ The fact that tens of thousands of people have been infected adds to the virus`s pressure to develop.
A UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador is in charge of a global vaccination campaign:
David Beckham, a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador, is leading an international campaign to boost vaccine interest and encourage parents to vaccinate their children against deadly diseases.
♦ Beckham discusses the loss of everyday activities due to COVID-19, such as hugs with family, spending time with friends, and being with the humans we love, in an effective video released in advance of World Immunization Week, and urges mother and father to vaccinate themselves so that they can be healthy.
♦ UNICEF Headquarters is at New York, United States of America.
♦ UNICEF Executive Director: Henrietta H. Fore.

Crew 2 of the International Space Station has been launched with four astronauts:

As part of a partnership between NASA and SpaceX under the Commercial Crew Program, four astronauts were launched to the International Space Station (ISS) from Florida. Crew-2 is the name of the mission.
♦ The Commercial Crew Program is a collaboration between NASA and the private sector to transport astronauts to and from the International Space Station.
♦ Unlike previous human spaceflight projects, NASA is a buyer who purchases flights from commercial companies. The spacecraft is not owned or operated by the company.
♦ The programme is assisting in lowering the cost of spaceflight and, without a doubt, creating a new opportunity for people in space.
♦ NASA will focus its efforts on developing spacecraft and rockets for deep space exploration missions by enabling private organisations to provide crew transportation to and from low-Earth orbit.
♦ NASA chose Boeing and SpaceX in September 2014 to improve transportation systems that will carry crew from the United States to the International Space Station.
♦ The International Space Station (ISS) is a livable artificial satellite tv for pc and the single largest man-made structure in low earth orbit. In 1998, the first factor was launched into space. It takes ninety-two minutes to circle the Earth and makes 15.5 orbits every day. It is scheduled to run until 2030.

Science & Technology Current Affairs April 3rd Week 2021

NASA to Launch Crew 2 of Space X:

On World Earth Day, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch four astronauts to the International Space Station (April 22). NASA and SpaceX will work together to launch the flight.
♦ SpaceX Crew 2 is the Crew Dragon Spacecraft`s second crewed operational flight. Four scientists will be transported to the International Space Station as part of the mission (ISS).
♦ NASA, JAXA, and ESA astronauts will travel to the International Space Station. The Japanese Space Agency is known as JAXA, and the European Space Agency is known as ESA.
♦ The Crew Dragon spacecraft was the first to launch humans from American soil in nine years. It was released for the first time in May of 2020. It was previously supported by NASA`s Commercial Crew Program. It originated from a plan known as Dragon 1 in the past. Between 2012 and 2020, Dragon 1 was launched on more than twenty missions to deliver cargo to the International Space Station.
♦ The first time astronauts used a spacecraft designed and launched by a private corporation was with SpaceX Crew 1. It even transported astronauts who had returned to Earth.
♦ Crew Dragon detaches from the International Space Station and returns to Earth this way. The pinnacle`s trunk component burns up in the atmosphere. The thrusters are then enabled for a 15-minute de-orbit burn. The De-orbit burn is the firing of a spacecraft`s engines to enable it to re-enter the atmosphere. When it re-enters the atmosphere, the temperature of the spacecraft reaches 1,600 degrees Celsius. Installation of a parachute from under the nose cone to the perspective capsule to cut through the water and reduce impact.



Indian Expedition To Antarctica - Returns To Cape Town:

The Ministry of Earth Sciences fortieth Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (40-ISEA) successfully returned to Cape Town after completing a journey of around 12,000 nautical miles in 94 days, including stopovers.
This achievement brings India`s scientific endeavour on the continent of peace and cooperation to a close after four years of success. On February 27, the crew arrived at Bharati station in Antarctica, and on March 8, they arrived at Maitri station. India`s permanent research base stations in Antarctica are Maitri and Bharati. Dr. Harsh Vardhan is the Minister of Earth Sciences.
Russia to Launch its Own Space Station
The agreement between Roscosmos and its global partners is due to expire in 2024. In 2025, Russia plans to leave the International Space Station (ISS) and launch its own personal space station.
♦ The International Space Station`s structure, according to Russia, is deteriorating. When the station becomes older, it will have irreversible effects.
♦ In 1998, the International Space Station was launched by means of the United States and Russian space agencies. Canada, the European Space Agency, and Japan were the other countries involved in the construction of the International Space Station. 
♦ The ISS takes ninety-three minutes to orbit the Earth. Every day, it completes 15.5 orbits. It flies at a speed of 7.7 kilometres per second in space.
♦ Following Russia`s departure, the ISS`s future will be determined entirely by the requirements of the station`s technological modules. The majority of the station`s operational modules have reached the end of their service life.
♦ The first core module of the new Russian orbital station is also ready, according to Roscosmos. The module is expected to be launched in 2025, according to Russia. The cost of constructing this new area mannequin is $5 billion USD.
♦ Russia has announced that it has reached an agreement with China to construct a lunar lookup station.
♦ The sixtieth anniversary of Yuri Gagarin becoming the first person to reach orbit in space was commemorated in Russia. Yuri Gagarin was the first person to travel into space. Vostok 1 was the name of his pill. On April 12, 1961, he performed one orbit of the earth on his tablet.

The FOSS4GOV Innovation Challenge aims to accelerate the adoption of free and open source software in government:

To promote the adoption of Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS) in the Indian government, MeitY announces the #FOSS4GOV Innovation Challenge.
Due to the large number of 4G data subscribers in India, 96 percent of whom gain access to the digital world through open-source primarily based cell operating systems, India is well positioned to become a vibrant hub for Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS) innovations (primarily Android). FOSS has also been used to build some of India`s largest government projects (including Aadhaar) as well as several science start-ups. The Indian government released a Policy on Adoption of Open-Source Software in 2015, acknowledging the viability of FOSS.
#FOSS4GOV Innovation Challenge:
The Innovation Challenge invites FOSS innovators, technology entrepreneurs, and Indian startups to apply open-source CRM and ERP product improvements with useful functions for Govtech in areas such as health, education, agriculture, and urban governance. This is a project for local developers to create open-source customer relationship management and organisation help management applications that can be used by Indian government agencies. Incubation funding, prize money, mentorship by domain experts, institutional assistance from eminent agencies for incubation of thoughts, and a list of choices on GeM are all available to participants.

Science & Technology Current Affairs April 2nd Week 2021

Lithium-Ion Battery Performance Enhancement Technique

IIT Guwahati researchers have developed a technology to boost the efficiency of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which power the majority of today`s portable devices.
♦ The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was shared by Stanley Whittingham, John Goodenough, and Akira Yoshino for their contributions to the production of lithium-ion batteries.
♦ Most cell phones, smart phones, tablets, laptops, power banks, and other machines use these batteries.
♦ The majority of electric vehicles (EVs) today use lithium-ion batteries, but they are approaching their theoretical limit of 300 watt-hours of electrical energy per kilogramme of energy.
♦ These batteries may also be used to store solar and wind energy, which means that if they are widely used, we can be able to live in a world without using fossil fuels.
New Services of National Internet Exchange of India:
The National Internet Exchange of India has introduced three new programs/services, according to the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) (NIXI).
Three new services:
♦ IPv6 Expert Group (IP Expert): The team assists all Indian organisations who are having technical difficulties migrating to and adopting IPv6. It will provide services at no cost. The Department of Telecommunications (DOT), MeitY, and industry have collaborated on this project.
♦ NIXI Academy: The NIXI Academy was founded to teach technical and non-technical staff in India how to learn and re-learn IPv6 and other technologies that are not typically taught in educational institutions. Effective candidates will receive an NIXI certificate after passing the test, which will assist them in finding/upgrading jobs in the industry.
♦ NIXI-IP-INDEX: For the Internet world, the National Internet Exchange of India has created an IPv6 index portal. The NIXI-IP-INDEX portal will show the adoption rate of IPv6 in India and around the world.
♦ It can be used to equate the rate of IPv6 adoption in India to that of other countries.
♦ It will also provide extensive details on the Web`s adoption in IPv6, IPv6 traffic, and other topics.
♦ Since 2003, NIXI has been dedicated to spreading Internet infrastructure to Indian people, as specified by Article 8 of the 2013 Companies Act.
Outbreak of Suspected African Swine Fever:

In Mizoram`s Longri area, a suspected outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) has killed 276 domestic pigs. Local authorities banned the purchase and supply of live pigs from the affected areas and the surrounding areas as part of preventative measures. 

♦ ASF is a highly infectious and lethal animal disease that usually causes acute hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs and wild boars. 
♦ In the 1920s, it was found in Africa for the first time. 
♦ The mortality rate is close to 100%, and because the disease cannot be cured, the only way to stop it from spreading is to cull animals. 
♦ ASF is not a threat to humans since it only spreads from one species to another. 
♦ “Its extremely high capacity for cross-border transmission puts all countries in the area at risk, once again allowing the spectre of ASF to escape from Africa,” according to the FAO. This is becoming a more significant factor in global food security and household income. Diseases of strategic importance"


Discovery of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy:

A new active galaxy has been discovered by astronomers. The galaxy was discovered to be the farthest gamma-ray emitting galaxy ever discovered.
♦ The Narrow-line Sever 1 (NLS1) galaxy, which is about 31 billion light-years away, is an active galaxy. It paves the way for the discovery of more gamma-ray emitting galaxies.
♦ Through the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), scientists from ARIES, the Autonomous Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of the Government of India, researched around 25,000 luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) and discovered a unique object. The object emits high-energy gamma rays with a high redshift (greater than 1). They named it as the NLS1 galaxy, which is a peculiar gamma-ray emitting galaxy in space.
♦ For the last 20 years, the SDSS has become the primary optical imaging and spectroscopy study of astronomical phenomena. The University of Chicago founded it.

Science & Technology Current Affairs April 1st Week 2021

Baikal-GVD (Gigaton Volume Detector) - Russia

Baikal-GVD (Gigaton volume detector), one of the world`s largest underwater neutrino telescopes, was launched in the waters of Lake Baikal, the world`s deepest Siberian lake. 
♦ It is one of the world`s three largest neutrino detectors, alongside IceCube at the South Pole and ANTARES in the Mediterranean. 
♦ It aims to investigate in depth the enigmatic elementary particles known as neutrinos, with the goal of determining their origin. 
About Neutrinos: 
♦ Wolfgang Pauli, a Swiss physicist, suggested neutrinos for the first time in 1930. They are the universe`s second most common particle, coming in second only to the photons that make up light.  
♦ In reality, neutrinos are so plentiful among us that over 100 trillion pass directly through each of us every second, and we are completely unaware of it. 
♦ Scientists will be able to better understand the origin of the universe by observing neutrinos, which were created during the Big Bang and continue to be formed due to supernova explosions or the sun`s nuclear reaction.
Flash Flood Killed People in Indonesia:
Heavy rains in eastern Indonesia triggered landslides and flash floods, killing at least 41 people and displacing thousands. 
Flash Flood: 
Floods that occur within six hours of heavy rain or for other causes are known as flash floods. These are very localised and short-lived occurrences. Flash floods, on the other hand, can happen in a matter of minutes or hours after heavy rain. Flash flooding can be caused by more than just heavy rain. Huge quantities of water may be inadvertently brought into low-lying areas by melting snow and ice in mountain streams. Similarly, a dam failure will cause a wall of water to rush downstream with no warning. 
Flash floods are difficult to predict. The number of events has risen as a result of climate change. The Himalayas are a tumultuous mountain range. Ignoring environmental legislation can result in flooding, which is most commonly seen when dams are built without proper risk assessment.
India`s role:
India is leading a national delegation to exchange hydrological and meteorological data in order to prepare flash flood forecasts, which includes Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Nepal.
The framework was created in collaboration with the Indian Central Water Commission (CWC) and the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). The South Asian Flash Flood Guidance System (FFGS) was introduced by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) to aid disaster management teams and the government in developing timely evacuation plans before floods occur. 

Chaff Technology by DRDO

To shield naval ships from enemy missile attacks, the DRDO has evolved advanced Chaff Technology. 
♦ The Defense Laboratory Jodhpur (DLJ) of the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) Laboratories has developed three variants of the technology: Short Range Chaff Rocket (SRCR), Medium Range Chaff Rocket (MRCR), and Long Range Chaff Rocket (LRCR). 
♦ The Indian Navy needs the Chaff Rocket (MRCR) and the Long Range Chaff Rocket (LRCR). 
♦ Chaff is a passive, expendable electronic countermeasure system that is used to defend naval ships from enemy radar and RF (radio frequency) missile seekers all over the world. 
♦The significance of this advancement stems from the fact that there are only a few husks in the air capable of fooling enemy missiles and ensuring the protection of ships.