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Science & Technology Current Affairs June 3rd Week 2021

Reason for New Viruses New Waves:

The NITI Aayog Member for Health has described why new waves occur.
There are four factors that contribute to the formation of a new wave:
1.The virus`s behaviour: The virus has the ability to spread and has the potential to do it again.
2.Susceptible host: In order to survive, the virus continues to seek for susceptible hosts. So, unless we have been vaccinated or have had a previous infection, we are vulnerable.
3.Transmissibility: The virus could evolve to the point where it can mutate and spread more easily. The identical virus that infected three hosts previously can now infect 13. Unpredictability is this variable. No one can prepare for such mutations ahead of time. The X factor is a change in the virus`s nature and transmissibility, which no one can anticipate when or where it will happen.
4.Opportunity: We give `opportunities` for the virus to infect. The virus has a higher probability of spreading if we eat together, huddle together, or sit in close quarters without wearing masks.
The member indicated that while the virus`s behaviour and transmission capability are beyond our control, the other two parameters, susceptibility and infection risk, are.

Partnership of Bharti Airtel and Tata Group 5G Network:

Bharti Airtel and the Tata Group have announced a strategic cooperation to implement 5G network technologies in India, which will be commercially available in January 2022. 
♦ Using the capabilities of the team and its partners, Tata Group has created an O-RAN (open-radio Access to Network)-based radio and non-standalone architecture/standalone architecture (NSA/SA) core, as well as a wholly indigenous telecom stack.
♦ The NSA/SA is a radio technology that regulates 5G radio signalling. While the NSA can manage 5G signalling to the 4G core, the SA can connect the 5G radio to the 5G core network instantly and manage signalling without relying on the 4G network.
♦ Airtel will test and deploy this indigenous solution as part of its 5G rollout ambitions in India, with the trial set to commence in January 2022, as per government standards. Tata Group will work with Indian IT companies and start-ups for hardware solutions, according to sources, with Tata functioning as a "amazing integrator." It may be able to use this relationship to export science to countries like Africa and Sri Lanka.

Science & Technology Current Affairs June 2nd Week 2021

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) Therapy:

The first CAR-T cell treatment was undertaken at ACTREC at Tata Hospital in Mumbai, with funding from the Department of Biotechnology.
♦ At June 2021, the first CAR-T cell therapy was performed at the ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre in Mumbai`s Bone Marrow Transplant Unit.
♦ This is a gene treatment that is being tested in a pilot clinical trial for the first time in India. IIT Bombay and Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai conducted the trial, which was partially funded by the BIRAC-PACE initiative.
♦ The National Biopharma Mission-BIRAC of the Indian government has given the team 19.15 crore to conduct a first-in-human phase-1/2 clinical study using CAR-T cells.
About Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapy:
♦ It is a treatment in which a patient`s T cells (a type of immune system cell) are genetically modified to kill cancer cells in the laboratory.
♦ T cells are taken from the blood of the patient. The gene for an unique receptor that attaches to a specific protein on the patient`s cancer cells is then introduced to the T cells in the laboratory. 
♦ A chimeric antigen receptor is the name given to this one-of-a-kind receptor (CAR). In the laboratory, a huge number of CAR T cells are generated before being administered into the patient.
♦ It`s used to treat several forms of blood cancers, and it`s also being studied for other cancers.