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Baikal-GVD (Gigaton Volume Detector) - Russia

Baikal-GVD (Gigaton volume detector), one of the world`s largest underwater neutrino telescopes, was launched in the waters of Lake Baikal, the world`s deepest Siberian lake. 
♦ It is one of the world`s three largest neutrino detectors, alongside IceCube at the South Pole and ANTARES in the Mediterranean. 
♦ It aims to investigate in depth the enigmatic elementary particles known as neutrinos, with the goal of determining their origin. 
About Neutrinos: 
♦ Wolfgang Pauli, a Swiss physicist, suggested neutrinos for the first time in 1930. They are the universe`s second most common particle, coming in second only to the photons that make up light.  
♦ In reality, neutrinos are so plentiful among us that over 100 trillion pass directly through each of us every second, and we are completely unaware of it. 
♦ Scientists will be able to better understand the origin of the universe by observing neutrinos, which were created during the Big Bang and continue to be formed due to supernova explosions or the sun`s nuclear reaction.
Flash Flood Killed People in Indonesia:
Heavy rains in eastern Indonesia triggered landslides and flash floods, killing at least 41 people and displacing thousands. 
Flash Flood: 
Floods that occur within six hours of heavy rain or for other causes are known as flash floods. These are very localised and short-lived occurrences. Flash floods, on the other hand, can happen in a matter of minutes or hours after heavy rain. Flash flooding can be caused by more than just heavy rain. Huge quantities of water may be inadvertently brought into low-lying areas by melting snow and ice in mountain streams. Similarly, a dam failure will cause a wall of water to rush downstream with no warning. 
Flash floods are difficult to predict. The number of events has risen as a result of climate change. The Himalayas are a tumultuous mountain range. Ignoring environmental legislation can result in flooding, which is most commonly seen when dams are built without proper risk assessment.
India`s role:
India is leading a national delegation to exchange hydrological and meteorological data in order to prepare flash flood forecasts, which includes Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Nepal.
The framework was created in collaboration with the Indian Central Water Commission (CWC) and the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). The South Asian Flash Flood Guidance System (FFGS) was introduced by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) to aid disaster management teams and the government in developing timely evacuation plans before floods occur. 

Chaff Technology by DRDO

To shield naval ships from enemy missile attacks, the DRDO has evolved advanced Chaff Technology. 
♦ The Defense Laboratory Jodhpur (DLJ) of the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) Laboratories has developed three variants of the technology: Short Range Chaff Rocket (SRCR), Medium Range Chaff Rocket (MRCR), and Long Range Chaff Rocket (LRCR). 
♦ The Indian Navy needs the Chaff Rocket (MRCR) and the Long Range Chaff Rocket (LRCR). 
♦ Chaff is a passive, expendable electronic countermeasure system that is used to defend naval ships from enemy radar and RF (radio frequency) missile seekers all over the world. 
♦The significance of this advancement stems from the fact that there are only a few husks in the air capable of fooling enemy missiles and ensuring the protection of ships.


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