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International Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

Operation Sard Hawa by BSF:

On the western frontier of Rajasthan, Operation Sard Hawa was initiated by border guards. Checking the penetration of dense fog in the region is the main objective of this activity. The operation was also launched before Republic Day to reinforce stability. Until January 27, 2021, the operation will begin.
♦ To keep an eye on the international borders, this operation was carried out. These jaws will be used in this operation to patrol the police station area along the border using advanced weapons.
♦ The amount of Khoba deployed at the border was increased by this action. During Operation Thad Hawa, the border troops` intelligence department will also be involved.
♦ There is a risk of infiltration in this area because of the thick fog in the desert region in winter. Attempts were made to use this haze from the border to penetrate. In this scenario, under special operations like Operation Thaad Hawa, border guards have increased their patrols.
♦ By means of vehicles and on foot, they also track the border. Jaws go on foot walks, too. Camels, cars and pedestrians used by intruders will be marked during the trek.
♦ The border troops of India are often referred to as "the first line of defence in Indian territory." It was established in 1965 after the Indo-Pakistani War.
♦ The Border Protection Force`s key role is to ensure the safety of the Indian border. It is operated by an Indian Police Service officer. In order to free the Indian Army from attack, the BSF also carried out defensive operations during the war.
♦ The BSF also assists in counter-insurgency operations with the Central Reserve Police Force and the Indian Army. A naval wing, air wing, commando and artillery regiments are available to the BSF. BSF is actually the world`s largest border guard.
Intergovernmental Negotiations Framework - India:
The Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations has reported that it has been 13 years since the beginning of the intergovernmental negotiations. Because of its lack of inclusiveness, the UN Security Council has found itself unable to take meaningful steps to address international peace and security problems.
♦ The Intergovernmental Negotiation System (IGN) is a coalition of nation-states working to further reform the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) within the United Nations, which is the highest body in the world and consists of 15 members.
Composition: IGN is composed of several different international organizations, namely: 
(1) African Union; 
(2) G4 nations (India, Brazil, Japan and Germany); 
(3) Unified Consensus Group (UfC); 
(4) L.69 Group of Developing Countries; 
(5) Arab League; 
(6) Caribbean Community (CARICOM).
♦ Each party reflects a different position compared with the reform of the UN Security Council.
♦ In 2016, a "oral decision" was passed by the United Nations General Assembly that approved a declaration called "elements of convergence" detailing the consensus status reached at that time by members of the IGN network.
Global Climate Survey done by UN:
The "United Nations Global Climate Survey." was the largest public opinion survey on climate change in history. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) held a People`s Climate Vote with 1.2 million people from 50 countries/regions to prepare the study.
♦ The United Nations found in the investigation that two-thirds of people claimed this was a "global emergency." The survey stressed that climate change is supported by people around the world. They also offer a strong mandate to leaders to take major steps to find solutions.
♦ Young individuals showed the greatest concern, according to the study. There was a climate emergency, 69 percent of people aged 14-18 said, while 58 percent of people over 60 agreed. Therefore, on climate problems, there is no generation difference.
♦ People strongly advocate renewable energy in countries where fossil fuels are the main source of emissions. For instance, 65 percent of U.S. citizens support renewable energy, 76 percent of Australians support Russia, and 51 percent of Russians support renewable energy.
♦ In countries where deforestation is the principal cause of pollution, people still support the conservation of trees. Brazil received 60% of the assistance and Indonesia received 57%.
♦ The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), based in New York City, is the global development network of the United Nations. The organization promotes technology and collaboration between countries in the field of investment. It is committed to providing developing countries with professional guidance, training and funding. It partners with countries to create their own strategies to resolve global and national developments challenges. 
♦ UNDP only offers assistance to countries when assistance is needed by various countries. UNDP is entirely funded by voluntary contributions from Member States of the United Nations. In 177 countries, UNDP operates. It also helps nations meet the Sustainable Goals for Growth (SDG).

Global Climate Litigation Report by UNEP:

"The "2021 Global Climate Litigation Report" was released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The report was written by UNEP in collaboration with Columbia University`s Sabin Center for Climate Change Law. The study emphasizes that in recent years, climate law suits have increased. The cases make the courts more and more important to attempts to combat global climate change.
♦ Climate occurrences have almost doubled in the past three years, according to estimates. More and more cases of climate change are pushing government and business players to meet their climate commitments.
♦ These cases often push the government to follow more aggressive objectives to mitigate and respond to climate change.  
♦ 884 lawsuits were filed in 24 countries/regions in 2017, according to the data given in the study. The number of cases obtained in 38 countries and the courts of the European Union has risen to 1,550, as of 2020.
♦ The study found that climate litigation in high-income countries tends to be concentrated, and this pattern is likely to escalate in the global South.
♦ Trends in climate litigation, such as violations of "climate rights." were also reported in the study. This means that cases increasingly depend on fundamental human rights, such as the right to life, food, health and water.
♦ After the United Nations Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in 1972, Maurice Strong founded the United Nations Environment Programme (also known as the United Nations Environment Programme). The organization participates in the coordination of the response within the United Nations framework to environmental issues.
♦ It provides leadership, provides scientific expertise and creates solutions to problems such as climate change, management of marine and terrestrial habitats and green economic growth. Governmental environmental agreements were also established which helped achieve environmental targets. UNEP`s primary aim is to help the planet reach 17 targets for sustainable growth.
♦ UNEP has organized environmental agreements such as the Convention on Water and Mercury, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Wild Fauna and Flora Species, and the Convention on Migratory Species. 

International Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

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