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A Buffer Zone Around the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary:

Kerala`s Chief Minister, Pinarayi Vijayan, is seeking the intervention of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to alleviate the concerns of the citizens of Wayanad about the draft notice from the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), which is planned in Wayanad to create a Wildlife Sanctuary (WWS) buffer zone.
♦ The 118.59 square kilometers around WWS are notified as ESZ by the draft released by MOEFCC.
♦ Kerala, however, hopes that the ESWS around WWS would have an area of 88.2 square kilometers. When notifying ESZ, the government claims that heavily populated areas should be excluded.
♦ The lives of thousands of farmers who live on the edge of shelters in the six villages of Mananthavady and Sulthan Bathery taluks would be seriously affected by such a change.
♦ All development in ecologically sensitive areas, including the building of roads and homes, would be affected, and without the permission of forest officials, farmers will not be able to cut down the trees they plant on the property.
♦ Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (5,520 square kilometers) is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and an important part of South India`s Seventh Elephant Sanctuary. This is the only sanctuary in Kerala where, supposedly, four-horned antelopes have been spotted.
♦ There have also been records of the presence of Egyptian vultures, Himalayan lion riffs and gray-black vultures in the reserve. The two bald eagles that were once common in Kerala (red-headed vultures and white-backed vultures) are now restricted to the Wayanad plateau.
♦ The forest base of Nagarhole-Bandipur-Mudumalai-Wayanad is also one of the nation`s most important tiger habitats. Latest surveys of tigers using camera traps show that the reserve has 79 tigers. The largest catchment area of the Kabani River tributaries constitutes the forest of the wildlife division.
♦ The Ecological Sensitive Zone (ESZ) or Ecological Fragile Zone (EFA) is the MoEFCC-notified area covering protected areas, national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.
Earthquake on Border of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh:
The first geological proof of an earthquake at the junction of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, which was historically recorded as the Sadiya earthquake, was discovered by scientists. This discovery will contribute to the eastern Himalayan earthquake disaster map, thereby helping to develop and prepare the region.
♦ The site is close to the suture zone of the Tudin-Tidding-main portion of the eastern Himalayas, where the Himalayas bend south and merge with India`s Burmese mountains.
♦ In Himebasti village in Arunachal Pradesh, scientists from the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG) conducted a large trench excavation. It has been studied by geological technology.
♦ WIHG is an autonomous entity under the Government of India`s Department of Science and Technology (DST).
♦ At the exit of the Subansiri River (Sadiya Town is about 145 kilometers southeast of the Subansiri River), scientists found large tree trunks in the youngest flood sediments, suggesting that the river encountered a series of aftershocks up to six months before the earthquake occurred.
♦ In geology, catchment is a term used for sediment deposition to raise the elevation of land.
♦ Aftershocks are earthquakes following an earthquake series, with the greatest effects. They are smaller than the mainshock and from the mainshock, within 1-2 break distances.

Lakhs of Migratory Water Birds Arrived at The Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary:

More than 100,000 migrant waterfowl will arrive at the Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Reserve in Himachal Pradesh in the winter of 2020-21. Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in Himachal Pradesh`s Kangra District.
♦ In 1975, on the opposite bank of the Bis river, the Pang Dam was constructed. It is also named Maharana Pratap Sagar or Pong Reservoir.
♦ The government of the Himalayas declared the entire reservoir a wildlife sanctuary in 1983.
♦ "In 1994, it was designated a "wetland of national significance" by the Indian government. Pong Lake was designated a Ramsar Wetland in November 2002.
♦ The sanctuary is capable of hosting 220 bird species out of about 54 species. Migratory birds from the Hindu Kush Himalayas to Siberia come here in the winter.
♦ The Beas River and its perennial tributaries including Gaj, Neogal, Binwa, Uhl, Bangana and Baner feed the lake. The lake has about 22 species of fish, including rare fish like Sal and Gad.
♦ The lake has about 22 species of fish, including rare fish like Sal and Gad. The lake`s ample level of water makes it a perfect destination for water sports. Tropical and subtropical forests, where many wild Indian species live, cover the reserve.
Other National Parks in Himachal Pradesh:
Greater Himalayan National Park: In the Banjaar district of Kullu District, the Greater Himalayas National Park is located and was officially declared a national park in 1999. The Great Himalayan National Park was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014 for its outstanding contribution to the conservation of biodiversity.
Pin National Park: In 1987, Pin Valley National Park, located in the districts of Lahaul and Spiti, was born. Different endangered species will find their natural habitats, such as snow leopards and Siberian ibex.
Inderkilla National Park: Inderkilla National Park is located in the Himachal State district of Kuru and was established in 2010. The types of insects are also different and can be seen from time to time in the Himalayas, such as leopards, deer and birds, and even rare birds in the summer.
Khirganga National Park: The National Park of Khirganga is located in Kuru and was established in 2010. The national park is situated at an altitude of approximately 5500 meters and occupies an area of approximately 710 square kilometers.
Simbalbara National Park: In the Panta Valley of Sirmour District, Simbalbara National Park is situated. It was formed in 1958 as the Simbalbara Wildlife Sanctuary, covering an area of 19.03 km2.

Mandarin Duck Spotted in Assam After 118 Years:

Almost 118 years later, a duck from Assam, a colorful duck from East Asia, was discovered. Mandarin`s discovery gave people hope for this wetland, which in 2020 would be threatened by blow-outs of natural gas and hell.
♦ A team of avian specialists found the Mandarin Duck in the Maguri-Motapung Beel in the Tinsukia area of eastern Assam.
♦ In eastern China and southern Japan, Duck is a village. It also landed in Assam accidentally. From time to time, ducks come to India. But some ducks may merge and follow their migration routes with other migratory birds.
♦ A group of Indian spotted ducks, migrating to China or Japan, are followed by spotted ducks. In 1902, it was in Assam that the last Mandarin was discovered.
♦ The duck`s scientific name is Aix galericulata. It is a genus of duck living in the Eastern Paleo-North Atlantic. The duck is medium-sized, 41-49 cm long, with a wingspan of 65-75 cm.
♦ Ducks are closely related to wood ducks from North America. In East Asia, ducks were once common. But they were exported on a wide scale, so that the population declined in eastern Russia and China.
♦ Moreover, the loss of its forest habitat has further intensified the decrease in population, reducing the population of Russia and China to less than 1000 pairs. Japan`s population is estimated to be around 5,000 couples.
♦ Normally, ducks prefer thick breeding grounds. It typically breeds in low-lying areas on the edges of thick forests of rivers and lakes. At an altitude of 1500 m, it can also breed in valleys.
♦ It also breeds in swamps, flooded land and open rivers in winter. Ducks prefer freshwater, but in coastal lagoons and estuaries, winter can be seen as well.

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