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Science & Technology Current Affairs March 4th Week 2021

Key Facts of NDHM Sandbox Environment:

The central government intends to assess the results of the National Digital Health Mission`s (NDHM) first phase in order to extend the project, which had previously invested 118.2 million rupees. The "NDHM sandbox environment" was also created as part of this task to encourage innovation and build trust. 
♦ In August 2020, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the National Digital Health Mission (NDHM). The mission has visited Chandigarh, Dammam and Diu, Ladakh, Dadra and Nagar Haveri`s joint territory, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Puducherry, and Lakshadweep since then.  
♦ The Union`s Ministry of Health is in charge of task execution in the six Union countries. According to the proposal, the central government has released 9,97095 health IDs as of March 15, 2021. 
♦ After receiving informed consent, the health ID issued under the task allows people to track the patient`s health and share data with verified doctors or healthcare providers. It also offers a voluntary opt-out option, allowing users to delete their personal information at any time. 
♦ To encourage creativity, participation, and trust, the government has created the "NDHM Sandbox Environment." A closed ecosystem has been created in the sandbox environment. The system enables the testing of technology or products in a closed environment in accordance with the NDHM standard. The test helps public and private organizations wishing to become part of the NDHM ecosystem to become health information providers or health information users. 
♦ The NDHM is an Indian government agency tasked with providing people with medical identification documents. People will be able to use the Ayushman Bharat Yojana with the help of this identification document. The plan is also compatible with other health-care initiatives such as the Aadhaar Identification Plan and the Ayushman Bharat Yojana Healthcare Plan. The health ID is retained by the user as an account in the mobile application. The Prime Minister announced this mission on Independence Day 2020.
Helium of India Import to Get Affected:
From 2021, the United States can no longer export helium. As a result, India`s industry will suffer large losses as a result of helium imports. 
♦ Helium is an inert, colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas that is extremely rare. 
♦ Rockets and nuclear reactors undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. 
♦ Kamerlingh Onnes, a Dutch physicist, liquefies helium by cooling it to -270 degrees Celsius. 
♦ The Rajmahal volcanic basin, located in the Indian state of Jharkhand, is a billion-year-old helium storage facility. 
♦ India is currently mapping the Rajamahal Basin in preparation for future helium exploration and utilisation.
Buldhana Pattern For Water Conservation:
The Buldhana Pattern for water conservation was presented to the Rajya Sabha by the Minister of Jal Shakti. 
♦ The National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog) has created draught guidelines to incorporate guidelines for the following activities: 
(i) Land acquisition for the improvement and development of national highways, state roads, and railways, and 
(ii) Projects to protect water sources by using silt/deep water bodies. 
♦ In the Buldhana district, these two activities were successfully implemented as a pilot project (Maharashtra).  

Department OF Biotechnology - National Biopharma Mission:

The National Biopharmaceutical Mission, which was approved by the Cabinet, was launched by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) with the aim of strengthening emerging biotech companies across India. Accelerating Discovery Research to Early Development for Biopharmaceuticals by Industry-Academic Collaboration – Innovate in India (I3) Biotech pioneers are being empowered, and inclusive innovation is name of the mission.
About National Biopharma Mission: 
♦ A National Biopharma Mission was established to assist small and medium-sized businesses in overcoming the risks associated with product production in the early stages. It encourages entrepreneurship by fostering stronger ties between industry and academia. It also offers academics, innovators, and entrepreneurs advice and training. The delegation continued to promote over shared national facilities, the domestic manufacturing industry (such as GLP analysis facilities, cell line databases and the establishment of clinical trial networks). 
Objectives of the mission: 
♦ Create goods for potential buyers that are nearing the end of the product development process. 
♦ Strengthen and create a common infrastructure for product verification and production. 
♦ To resolve the "main skills gap" between researchers and nascent biotech companies, develop human capital by offering advanced training. 
♦ Create and enhance public and private sector technology transfer and intellectual property protection capabilities. 
Targets of the Mission: 
♦ Develop biotherapeutics, vaccinations, medical devices, and diagnostics, among other biopharmaceutical items. 
♦ Set up shared infrastructure and services, such as GLP verification and reference labs. 
♦ Medical technology verification facility. 
♦ Process growth and cell line development, as well as translation and interdisciplinary analysis. 
♦ Create technology transfer offices in both the public and private sectors. 
♦ To instruct on the acquisition of both technical and non-technical skills.

Co-WIN Upgraded - Can Register for Jab Daily:

The COVID-19 vaccination portal, according to the chairman of the approved COVID-19 vaccination committee, has been strengthened to recognise 10 million registrations and monitor the regular vaccination status of 5 million citizens.
♦ The COVID Vaccine Intelligent Network (CoWIN) framework is a digital platform that can be used to promote and extend the COVID vaccine distribution system throughout the world.  
♦ The Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network (EVIN) has been updated (eVIN). This is a government-run operation from start to finish. 

Science & Technology Current Affairs March 3rd Week 2021

ISRO Launched Sounding Rocket RH 560 on 12th March:

On March 12, 2021, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) launched RH-560, a sounding rocket. The rocket will be launched to investigate "vertical shifts" in neutral wind and plasma dynamics. 
♦ The Satish Dhawan Space Center`s Sriharikota Range (SHAR) launched the RH-560 rocket (SDSC). The sounding rocket is a one-stage or two-stage solid propellant rocket, according to ISRO. These rockets are used to perform space research and probe the upper atmosphere. ISRO started launching locally built sounding rockets in 1965. 
♦ ISRO recently announced that on March 28, 2021, it will launch an Earth observation satellite that will provide near real-time border pictures. Natural disasters would be able to be monitored more quickly as a result of this. 
♦ The GISAT-1 satellite will be launched by the Sriharikota spaceport`s "GSLV-F10 rocket." The spacecraft will be launched into a geosynchronous orbit by the rocket, and then into a geostationary orbit by an airborne propulsion system. The orbit is about 36,000 kilometres above the equator of the earth. 
♦ The space agency and the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C51) launched the primary satellite of Brazil, Amazonia-1, as well as 18 passenger spacecraft, from the Sriharikota Spaceport in February 2021. During the covid-19 pandemic in 2021, this is ISRO`s first satellite. This is also New Space India Limited`s first commercial mission (NSIL), which was carried out with the help of Spaceflight Inc. of the United States of America (USA).
Linking Of OTPRMS Certificates With Digilocker:
The OTPRMS certificate will be connected to DigiLocker, and registration fees will be waived entirely, according to the Union Education Minister. 
♦ To ensure worry-free access, the Ministry of Education (MoE) has agreed to connect the Online Teacher Pupil Registration Management System (OTPRMS) Certificate with DigiLocker. 
♦ The provided certificate will be moved to DigiLocker, which can be found on the National Council for Teacher Education`s website. 
♦ The registration fee of Rs. 200/- for obtaining an NCTE-issued OTPRMS certificate has been waived. 
♦ All stakeholders in India will be able to receive digital authorization as a result, simplifying industry.

Largest Floating Solar Farms Being Built In Singapore:

Singapore is constructing the world`s biggest floating solar farm. The country has resorted to constructing energy plants near entire reservoirs and along the coast. 
♦ Given that this floating solar farm is one of the world`s smallest countries, it is also one of India`s largest per capita carbon dioxide emitters, so it is currently being built. As a result, it is constructing floating solar farms in order to respond to climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sembcorp Industries was in charge of the construction. 
♦ Singapore faces a renewable energy problem because it lacks rivers for hydroelectric power generation.  
♦ The turbine cannot be powered solely by wind. As a result, the authorities attempted to reform this idea by establishing floating solar farms. As a result, this tropical nation switched to solar power. 
♦ The country has planned to develop energy plants along its coast and reservoirs because its land area is limited, about half the size of Los Angeles. 
♦ Growing sea levels are a threat to the island nation as a result of climate change. As a result, the nation acknowledges the importance of reducing pollution.  
♦ As a result, the Singapore government has announced a number of "green plans," including efforts to increase charging stations to promote the use of electric cars, minimise waste sent to landfills, and plant more trees.  
♦ In addition, by 2025, the country intends to quadruple its use of solar energy to 2% of total electricity demand, with a goal of reaching 3% by 2030.
Aligning A Missile Deal With Destination Manila:
An "implementation agreement" for the "arrangement for procurement of defence materials and equipment" was signed by India and the Philippines. The agreement provides the groundwork for government-to-government sales of defence systems. The Philippines is looking to buy Indian BrahMos cruise missiles.
About BrahMos: 
♦ BrahMos cruise missiles are developed by BrahMos Aerospace Limited, an Indian-Russian joint venture. 
♦ This is the world`s first operational supersonic cruise missile.  
♦ BrahMos cruise missiles have a range of at least 290 kilometres and can fly at Mach 2.8 (nearly three times the speed of sound) (the new version can reach 400 kilometers). 
♦ Because of its high altitude, air defence systems using surface-to-air missiles would have a hard time intercepting BrahMos, while modern fighter jets will be easier to attack and even neutralise. 
♦ In the next version, attempts are being made to improve the missile`s speed and range. The objective is to achieve supersonic speed (at or above Mach 5) and a range of 1,500 kilometres. 
Scientists Have Discovered Artificial Photosynthesis:
Artificial Photosynthesis (AP) provides carbon capture and conversion options. 
♦ Scientists have found a way to capture excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by mimicking nature`s own process of reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, i.e. photosynthesis. 
♦ Artificial Photosynthesis (AP) captures carbon dioxide and converts it to carbon monoxide, which can be used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. 
♦ In Artificial Photosynthesis, scientists use a simpler nanostructure to mimic the fundamental process of natural photosynthesis. However, there are numerous challenges to overcome in order to successfully implement Artificial Photosynthesis. 
♦ An integrated catalytic system based on a metal organic framework (MOF-808), which includes a photosensitizer, was designed and manufactured by a team of scientists from JNCASR (a molecule that absorbs light and transfers electrons from incident light to another molecule nearby). The molecule can reduce carbon dioxide by utilising solar energy and catalytic centres. 
♦ The established catalyst has a high selectivity for CO2 to CO reduction when exposed to visible light, exceeding 99 percent. 
♦ The catalyst oxidizes water to produce oxygen (O2). 
♦ When analysing the photocatalytic module`s CO2 reduction amount in an aqueous medium without any additives, it demonstrates excellent CO generation performance. 
♦ The integrated catalytic module can be reused for several catalytic cycles without losing its activity because it is heterogeneous.


Science & Technology Current Affairs March 2nd Week 2021

Google Launched Women Will Web Platform:

On March 8, 2021, Google unveiled a new online platform called "Women`s Will" in honour of "International Women`s Day." Under the platform`s acceleration programmes, business coaching, and advice, 1 million rural women in India will be able to become entrepreneurs. 
♦ The portal is available in both English and Hindi. It will offer advice to aspiring rural women, allowing them to turn their hobbies or interests (such as beauty services, tailoring, home tuition, food processing, and so on) into a company. It will also serve as a guide for business management and promotion. In the beginning, Google will collaborate with 2,000 Internet Saathis to assist women transform into entrepreneurs. 
♦ In 2015, Google and Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai launched the Internet Saathis project to provide digital literacy training to women in various villages.

Science & Technology Current Affairs March 1st Week 2021

Launch of PSLV-C51 and Amazonia-1 Mission:

On February 27, 2021, the Indian Space Research Organization`s (PSV-C 51) or Amazonia-1 mission will be launched. At 8:54 a.m., the countdown will begin. On February 28, 2021, the project was finally launched successfully. 
♦ The Satish Dhawan Space Center (SDSC) in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, is scheduled to launch PSLV-C51.  
♦ On February 28, 2021, at 10:24 p.m., it will be launched from the Space Center. ISRO`s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is on its 53rd flight.  
♦ The PSLV-C51 rocket will carry the Brazilian satellite Amazonia-1 as the primary satellite in this launch.  
♦ ISRO vehicles can also carry 19 passenger satellites in addition to Brazilian satellites. The weather in the city on February 28, 2021, will, however, affect this launch. 
♦ This is also ISRO`s commercial node organisation "New Space India Limited (NSIL)" first specialised commercial mission.
♦ This mission is being carried out by NSIL under a commercial agreement with Spaceflight Inc. Spaceflight Inc. is a satellite carpooling and task management service provider. It is situated in Seattle, Washington, United States of America. NSIL will send 14 of the 18 passenger satellites. 
♦ Amazonia-1 is being launched by the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research. The satellite is an earth observation satellite that uses optical technology. The satellite would attempt to strengthen the current structure. It will also share data from remote sensing to monitor deforestation in Brazil`s Amazon. Furthermore, the satellite will provide data on diversified agriculture throughout Brazil. 
♦ The PSLV will transport four passengers from the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center, a node department (IN-SPACe). IN-SPACe is a non-profit organisation under the Ministry of Space. It gives the private sector access to space activities.

Russia Launched 1st Arctic-monitoring Satellite:

Russia has launched the first satellite to track the Arctic. Roscosmos, Russia`s space agency, has successfully launched the first Arctic monitoring satellite, which will track the region`s climate and atmosphere.
♦ The Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket, which also carries the Arktika-M satellite, was launched by the space agency. On February 28, 2021, the rocket was detonated at Kazakhstan`s Baikonur International Space Airport.
♦ It is important to build such a satellite system in a highly elliptical orbit to collect information in order to solve operational meteorological and hydrological problems.  
♦ The satellite will also keep an eye on the Arctic`s climate and atmosphere. It will also have continuous monitoring of Russia`s northern territories around the clock.  
♦ Every 15 to 30 minutes, the Arktika-M satellite will give an overview image of the Earth`s Arctic and neighbouring regions.
♦ This satellite is part of a Russian initiative to launch a series of remote sensing and emergency communications satellites. The satellite has a 12-hour orbit that is strongly elliptical. A constellation of two Arktika-M satellites was also developed to keep an eye on the earth`s high latitudes. The Lavochkin Elektro-L weather satellite will serve as the basis for the satellite. MSU-GSM multi-spectral imagers and transmitters for weather and rescue systems are among the satellite`s payload. The satellite`s first launch was set for 2013, but it has been postponed until 2021. 
Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Roscosmos): 
♦ It is a Russian Federation state-owned corporation involved in space exploration, aerospace research, and space programmes. After the Soviet Union fell apart in 1991, Roscosmos emerged. It was established in 1992 under the name Russian Space Agency. Moscow is the headquarters of Roscosmos. Its main mission control centre is in Korolyov, which is close by.