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Awards Current Affairs April 4th Week 2021

Oscar Awards 2021 Was Announced:

On April 25, 2021, the 93rd Academy Awards ceremony, also known as the Oscars Award, was held in Los Angeles. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences helps to present the award each year (AMPAS). The Oscars for 2021 honoured the best films from 2020 and early 2021.
♦ With three nominations, the American drama "Nomadland" took home the most. Chloe Zhao, the director of "Nomadland," was named satisfactory director, making her only the second woman and the first woman of colour to receive the award. In the “In Memoriam” montage shown at the function, Indian film personalities Irrfan Khan and Bhanu Athaiya were honoured.
Complete List of Winners:
♦ Best Picture: Nomadland
♦ Best Director: Chloe Zhao, Nomadland
♦ Best Actress: Frances McDormand, Nomadland
♦ Best Actor: Anthony Hopkins, The Father
♦ Best Supporting Actress: Youn Yuh-jung, Minari
♦ Best Supporting Actor: Daniel Kaluuya, Judas And The Black Messiah
♦ Best Original Screenplay: Promising Young Woman
♦ Best Adapted Screenplay: The Father
♦ Best Animated Feature Film: Soul
♦ Best International Feature Film: Another Round
♦ Best Original Score: Soul
♦ Best Original Song: Fight For You, Judas And The Black Messiah
♦ Best Documentary Feature: My Octopus Teacher
♦ Best Documentary Short: Colette
♦ Best Live Action Short: Two Distant Strangers
♦ Best Animated Short: If Anything Happens I Love You
♦ Best Sound: Sound Of Metal
♦ Best Production Design: Mank
♦ Best Cinematography: Mank
♦ Best Makeup And Hair: Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom
♦ Best Costume Design: Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom
♦ Best Film Editing: Sound Of Metal
♦ Best Visual Effects: Tenet
♦ Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award: Tyler Perry

Economy Current Affairs April 4th Week 2021

ADB Raises India GDP Forecast:

The Asian Development Bank has just released its 2021 Asian Development Outlook. According to the report, India will develop at an annual rate of 11%. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has published its annual outlook. According to the outlook, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has provided India with 1.5 billion dollars in economic assistance to combat COVID-19.


♦ South Asia is expected to recover at 9.5 percent in 2021, according to the Asian Development Bank. In the year 2020, the South Asian region had shrunk by 6%. In 2022, the region`s average growth rate will be 6.6 percent.

♦ In 2021, Asia`s monetary boom is expected to recover at 7.3 percent. In 2020, the location saw a 0.2 percent decrease in its growth. It is expected to develop at a rate of 5.3 percent by 2022.

♦ China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taipei are projected to experience a multiplied raise charge of 7.7% in 2021 and 5.6 percent in 2022, respectively. These countries are classified as newly industrialised countries, according to the records.

♦ East Asia`s GDP is expected to rise at a rate of 7.4 percent in 2021 and 5.1 percent in 2022.

♦ China`s GDP is expected to rise to 8.1 percent in 2021, with a realistic expense of 5.5 percent in 2022.

♦ China`s strong exports are expected to boost the country`s financial situation in 2021.

The State Governments and UTs Ways and Means Advancement Scheme:

Given the COVID-19 outbreak, the RBI agreed to keep the current interim Ways and Means Advances (WMA) scheme limit of 51,560 crores for all States/UTs in place for another six months, until September 30.
♦ Ways and Capability Advances (WMA) are a mechanism used by the RBI under its credit policy to grant to States that bank with it to help them overcome transient mismatches in the money flow of their receipts and payments.
♦ This is guided underneath Section 17(5) of the RBI Act, 1934.
♦ The RBI revised the WMA Scheme of States and Union Territories based on the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on WMA to State Governments, 2021 (chaired by Sudhir Shrivastava) (UTs)
♦ The WMA limit set by the Committee is focused entirely on the total expenditure of States/UTs, which comes to Rs 47,010 crores.
♦ The Reserve Bank announced that, depending on the course of the pandemic and its effect on the economy, it would reevaluate the WMA restriction.



Organic Food Products Of India Exports:

In comparison to 2019-20, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry reported that organic food commodity exports increased by 39% to eight lakh 88 thousand metric tonne at some point during the previous fiscal year.
♦ Despite the technological and organisational difficulties faced by the COVID19 pandemic, organic demand growth has continued.
♦ Oil cake meal, along with oil seeds, cereals and millets, tea, medicinal plant products, and dry fruits, has been a mainstay of the country`s organic product exports.
♦ Natural products from India have been exported to 58 countries, including the United States, the European Union, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, Switzerland, Israel, and South Korea.
♦ Organic products are currently only exported from India if they are made, processed, packaged, and labelled in accordance with the National Programme for Organic Production`s requirements (NPOP).
♦ Since its establishment in 2001, the NPOP has been managed by the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA).
♦ The European Union and Switzerland have recognised the NPOP certification, allowing India to export unprocessed plant products to these countries without the need for additional certification. Even in the post-Brexit era, the equivalency with the EU allows Indian natural products to be exported to the UK.
♦ More than 30 lakh hectares of land in India have been certified as normal, and more farmers are gradually joining the movement. India is ranked fifth in terms of geographical position and first in terms of total number of producers (base year 2019).
♦ Despite the widespread adoption of modern agricultural practises, there are large contiguous areas in India`s hills, tribal districts, wasteland, and rained areas that remain chemical-free. These traditional/default natural areas can be organically certified almost instantly with little effort.
♦ To qualify as organic, areas with chemical input consumption records must go through a transition period of at least 2-3 years, according to the connected standard of natural manufacturing systems. Farmers tend to use favoured natural agriculture methods to keep their farms out of the certification process during this period. Such farms may be certified as natural after 2-3 years if they are productive. The certification process also necessitates extensive documentation and periodic review by certification authorities.

Important Days Current Affairs April 4th Week 2021

International Chernobyl Disaster Remembrance Day is Designated on 27th April:

The International Chernobyl Disaster Remembrance Day is commemorated every year on April 26. The United Nations declared the day in 2016, and it was the first time it was observed.
♦ On the 30th anniversary of the 1986 nuclear disaster, the International Chernobyl Disaster Remembrance Day was created. It is being used to draw attention to the dangers of nuclear power in general.
♦ On April 26, 1986, a fore blast occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in what is now Ukraine. The reactor began to spew radioactive materials into the atmosphere.
♦ Despite the low number of casualties, radioactive contaminants are still present in the atmosphere, posing a threat to human life in the area. Various young people in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus are now suffering from thyroid cancer as a result of the crash.
♦ A huge radioactive cloud was scattered across Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus as a result of the fire blast. A total of 8.4 million people were exposed to radioactive waves. The Chernobyl Trust Fund was established by the United Nations in 1991. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is now in charge of it.
♦ After the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the United Nations, which was created to promote world peace following World War II, is willing to discuss nuclear issues.

National Current Affairs April 4th Week 2021

Foundation Stone for Project Parasol:

The integrated Solar Dryer and Pyrolysis pilot plant`s foundation stone was recently laid in Chennai.


♦ The pilot is part of the Indo-German `Pyrasol` challenge, which aims to transform urban natural waste into biochar and electricity in smart cities.

♦ With the help of the Indo-German Science & Technology Centre, it was given to CSIR-CLRI.

♦ The aim of the project is to develop technology for the joint processing of fibrous organic waste (FOW) and sewage sludge (SS) from Indian smart cities into hygienic and particularly valuable biochar that can be used for power generation, carbon sequestration, and environmental improvement.

Project Pyrasol:

With an integrated and interactive approach, the project focuses on managing and organising collection, care, and disposal systems of city wastes in Indian Smart Cities as well as other city centres.


About Indo-German Science & Technology Centre (STC):

Founded by India and Germany to promote Indo-German R&D collaboration with a focus on enterprise participation, applied research, and technology growth. IGSTC`s flagship initiative, "2+2 Ventures," catalyses innovation-centric R&D projects by combining the strengths of Indian and German research and educational institutions, as well as public and private industries.

J&K Government Employees Will Be Monitored by a Special Task Force:

The government of J&K formed a Special Task Force (STF) to identify and investigate government officials who are involved in any cases involving threats to national security or anti-national activities.
♦ The chairman of the Special Task Force will be the ADGP (CID), J&K, and members will include representatives from the Home Department, Law Department, Justice Member, Parliamentary Affairs, and the concerned department.
♦ The STF will investigate employees accused of engaging in activities that include action under Indian Constitution Article 311(2)(C).
♦ The STF has been charged with gathering such personnel`s records and working with other Terror Monitoring Group (TMG) contributors to identify such individuals.
♦ The cross comes when a number of government officials have been seen in public sharing their political views on the Kashmir dispute in the past.

National Commission for Minorities

The Delhi High Court has ordered the Centre to fill the vacant positions of chairperson and five other members of the National Commission for Minorities (NCM) by July 31, 2021.
♦ In 1978, the Ministry of Home Affairs Resolution called for the establishment of the Minorities Commission (MC).
♦ In 1984, the MC was separated from the Ministry of Home Affairs and placed under the newly formed Ministry of Welfare, which in 1988 removed linguistic minorities from the Commission`s jurisdiction.
♦ The MC became a legislative body in 1992, when the NCM Act was enacted, and it was called the NCM.
♦ The first Statutory National Commission was established in 1993, and five non-secular groups were designated as minority communities: Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Zoroastrians (Parsis).
♦ Jains were officially recognised as a minority group in 2014.
NCM is made up of a Chairperson, a Vice-Chairperson, and five individuals, all of whom must come from minority communities. The Central Government must appoint a total of seven people from among people of eminence, capacity, and dignity.
From the date of assumption of office, each Member is assigned to a workplace for a period of three years.

International Current Affairs April 4th Week 2021

Statehood Movement in Columbia:

The United States House of Representatives recently passed a bill making Washington, DC, the fifty-first state in the nation. For the second year in a row, the Washington DC Admissions bill has been exceeded. The bill would create the “Washington, Douglas Commonwealth” as a republic. Frederick Douglass was the inspiration for the name.
♦ Washington, D.C. is also officially known as Columbia. The capital of the United States is Washington, D.C. The Potomac River runs through it. It shares a frontier with Maryland and Virginia.
♦ The aim of the District of Columbia Statehood Movement is to make the District of Columbia a US state. The taxpayers would have voting rights in Congress as a result of this. They would eventually have complete control over municipal affairs. The Columbian district is currently under the exclusive control of the United States Congress.
♦ Statehood would be granted in the United States if a law is passed by the US Congress. The US Congress will admit new states to the Union by passing a statute, according to Article IV of the US Constitution.
♦ Columbia would be the 49th most populous state if it becomes a state. However, in terms of GDP, it will come in first. Also, in terms of median family income, it is first.
♦ The first African American to be nominated for Vice President of the United States was Frederick Douglass. He was a social reformer, orator, and abolitionist once upon a time. In Maryland, he had previously worked as a slave. He fled slavery and rose through the ranks of the Abolitionist movement to become its national leader. The Abolitionist movement aimed to abolish slavery in the United States.

Human Rights Watch on Israel:

Human Rights Watch said on Tuesday that Israel is committing "apartheid" by attempting to maintain Jewish "domination" over Palestinians and its own Arab community.
♦ Movement limitations, land confiscation, forcible population transfer, denial of citizenship rights, and suspension of civil rights were all listed.
♦ According to the document, Israel is the "single authority" with jurisdiction "over the region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea."
Israel said:
Israel blasted HRW`s allegations as "preposterous and baseless," accusing it of having "a long-standing anti-Israeli agenda." Israel is currently under investigation by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for alleged war crimes.
About Human Rights Watch:
Founded in 1978 and based in New York City, this organisation performs human rights research and advocacy. The team works on behalf of refugees, children, migrants, and political prisoners, putting pressure on governments, politicians, businesses, and individual human rights abusers to condemn violence and appreciate human rights. The company`s headquarters are in New York.

Science & Technology Current Affairs April 4th Week 2021

Rising Prevalence of U.K. Strain in Delhi:

The proportion of genome samples sequenced from COVID-19 cases in the state of Delhi containing the U.K. variant (B.1.1.7) has increased from 28% in the second week of March to 50% in the final week.
♦ The N501Y mutation in the U.K. strain is known to amplify virus transmission, leading to increased numbers and, as a result, increased disease incidence and mortality.
♦ Along with Punjab, Chhattisgarh, and Gujarat, Delhi was one of the states where cases of the UK strain in the general public far outnumbered those found among foreign visitors and their contacts.
♦ A mutation is simply a modification in the genome`s letter sequence. Virus mutations are an unavoidable aspect of evolution.
♦ The fact that tens of thousands of people have been infected adds to the virus`s pressure to develop.
A UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador is in charge of a global vaccination campaign:
David Beckham, a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador, is leading an international campaign to boost vaccine interest and encourage parents to vaccinate their children against deadly diseases.
♦ Beckham discusses the loss of everyday activities due to COVID-19, such as hugs with family, spending time with friends, and being with the humans we love, in an effective video released in advance of World Immunization Week, and urges mother and father to vaccinate themselves so that they can be healthy.
♦ UNICEF Headquarters is at New York, United States of America.
♦ UNICEF Executive Director: Henrietta H. Fore.

Crew 2 of the International Space Station has been launched with four astronauts:

As part of a partnership between NASA and SpaceX under the Commercial Crew Program, four astronauts were launched to the International Space Station (ISS) from Florida. Crew-2 is the name of the mission.
♦ The Commercial Crew Program is a collaboration between NASA and the private sector to transport astronauts to and from the International Space Station.
♦ Unlike previous human spaceflight projects, NASA is a buyer who purchases flights from commercial companies. The spacecraft is not owned or operated by the company.
♦ The programme is assisting in lowering the cost of spaceflight and, without a doubt, creating a new opportunity for people in space.
♦ NASA will focus its efforts on developing spacecraft and rockets for deep space exploration missions by enabling private organisations to provide crew transportation to and from low-Earth orbit.
♦ NASA chose Boeing and SpaceX in September 2014 to improve transportation systems that will carry crew from the United States to the International Space Station.
♦ The International Space Station (ISS) is a livable artificial satellite tv for pc and the single largest man-made structure in low earth orbit. In 1998, the first factor was launched into space. It takes ninety-two minutes to circle the Earth and makes 15.5 orbits every day. It is scheduled to run until 2030.

Sports Current Affairs April 3rd Week 2021

Women of India Won 7 Gold in AIBA Youth World Boxing Championship:

At the AIBA Youth World Boxing Championship 2021, Indian women made history. There were a total of eight Indians in the finals. Seven of them have been women. The female finalists were all victorious.
Indian women won five gold medals in 2017. Guwahati was the host city for the 2017 Youth World Championship.
♦ The AIBA Youth Women`s World Boxing Championships in 2021 saw India win seven gold medals. Sanamacha was used to substitute the sixth gold. Sanamacha is a boxer who trains at MC Mary Kom`s Academy in Imphal. In the 75 kg final, she beat Kazakhstan`s Dana Diday.
♦ Alfiya won India`s seventh gold medal. Daria Kozorez of Moldova, a strong competitor, was defeated.
♦ Haryana`s Gitika won gold in the 48 kg category. Erika Prisciandaro, a two-time European champion, was defeated. Erika is a native of Italy. Gitika beat Natalia Kuczewska in the finals.
♦ Two more gold medals were won by Poonam and Babyrojisana. Poonam was paired with Sthelyne Grosy in the finals, while Babyrojisana was paired with Valeriia Linkova.
♦ Arundhati from Rajasthan won gold in the 69 kg category. Barbara Marcinkowska, a Polish boxer, was defeated.
♦ In the 64 kg category, Ankit Narwal won bronze. Bishwamitra Chongthom and Vishal Gupta, meanwhile, won bronze medals in the 49 kg and 91 kg weight categories, respectively.
♦ AIBA is an acronym for the International World Boxing Association, which hosts the AIBA Women`s World Boxing Championship and the AIBA World Boxing Championships every two years.

Memorandum of Understanding Current Affairs April 3rd Week 2021

The Cabinet has approved India-Bangladesh trade cooperation:

The Memorandum of Understanding between India`s Director General of Trade Remedies and Bangladesh`s Trade and Tariff Commission was accepted by the Union Cabinet. The agreement was signed in order to extend cooperation in the trade remedy sector. On March 27, 2021, the agreement was signed.
♦ The agreement`s goals are to facilitate information exchange, alternative therapies, and other activities in compliance with World Trade Organization rules.
♦ In general, the agreement focused on countervailing, anti-dumping, and protectionism in the bilateral trade dispute between India and Bangladesh.
♦ Import tariffs are known as countervailing duties, or CVDs. They are imposed to counteract the negative effects of subsidies. CVDs are also known as anti-subsidy duties.
♦ Let`s say a nation discovers that another country is subsidising its imports. This will wreak havoc on domestic suppliers. As a result, the home country will place responsibilities on such products in order to protect its domestic suppliers. These duties are imposed solely in accordance with WTO laws.
♦ On the exporting nation, countervailing obligations are levied on subsidised goods. Anti-dumping obligations, on the other hand, are imposed on low-cost imports.
♦ Consider the possibility that China is exporting silicon wafers to India.
♦ Case 1: The Chinese government provides subsidies to silicon wafer producers. It is now known as countervailing duties when India imposes import tariffs.
♦ Case 2: The Chinese government does not offer any incentives for silicon wafers. However, the exporter is marketing the product at a very low cost. When India imposes a duty, it is referred to as anti-dumping duties.



Important Days Current Affairs April 3rd Week 2021

World Creativity and Innovation Day is designated on 21st April:

Every year on April 21, the United Nations declares World Creativity and Innovation Day. This day is observed to raise awareness about the value of creativity and innovation in problem-solving in order to further the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, also known as the "world goals." 
The main aim of the day is to motivate people to try good things, make new choices, and think creatively. It is creativity that keeps the world turning. On May 25, 2001, in Toronto, Canada, World Creativity and Innovation Day (WCID) was born. Marci Segal, a Canadian, was the founder of the time. In 1977, Segal was a researcher at the International Center for Studies in Creativity, where he was researching creativity. On April 27, 2017, the United Nations decided to include World Creativity and Innovation Day on April 21 as a day of observance to raise awareness among people about the importance of using creativity in problem-solving for all issues that may be related to achieving the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals.

Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day is on 24th April:

The US President, Joe Biden, is prepared to officially recognise the Armenian Genocide. Every year on April 24, Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day is commemorated.
Despite disagreements about Turkey, historians accept that thousands of Armenians died as a result of massacres, malnutrition, and disease during the Armenian Genocide, which occurred between 1915 and 1922 during World War I, when they were deported from Japanese Anatolia by Ottoman Turks. More than 1 million Armenians may have died, according to the International Association of Genocide Scholars.
According to researchers, acknowledging the genocide with the help of the US government would have no legal impact on Turkey, aside from being a source of shame for the US and possibly giving other countries the incentive to recognise the genocide as well. This recognition in the international community, however, may be unexpected and unpalatable for Turkey.

Sports Current Affairs April 3rd Week 2021

At the Senior Asian Wrestling Championships, India wins 14 medals:

Almaty, Kazakhstan hosted the 2021 Senior Asian Wrestling Championships from April 13 to 18, 2021. The Asian Wrestling Championships were held for the thirty-fourth time. India won 14 medals, putting them in third place on the medal table. Five Gold, three Silver, and six Bronze medals are among the awards. With 17 medals each, Kazakhstan and Iran took the lead in the medal count.
Following are the medal winners from India:
Ravi Kumar Dahiya – 57 kg Men’s freestyle
Vinesh Phogat – fifty three kg Women’s freestyle
Anshu Malik – fifty seven kg Women’s freestyle
Sarita Mor – fifty nine kg Women’s freestyle
Divya Kakran – 72 kg Women’s freestyle
Bajrang Punia – 65 kg Men’s freestyle
Deepak Punia – 86 kg Men’s freestyle
Sakshi Malik – sixty five kg Women’s freestyle
Karan Mor – 70 kg Men’s freestyle
Narsingh Yadav – 79 kg Men’s freestyle
Sanjeet – 92 kg Men’s freestyle
Satyawart Kadian – 97 kg Men’s freestyle
Seema Bisla – 50 kg Women’s freestyle
Pooja Sihag – 76 kg Women’s freestyle

Science & Technology Current Affairs April 3rd Week 2021

NASA to Launch Crew 2 of Space X:

On World Earth Day, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch four astronauts to the International Space Station (April 22). NASA and SpaceX will work together to launch the flight.
♦ SpaceX Crew 2 is the Crew Dragon Spacecraft`s second crewed operational flight. Four scientists will be transported to the International Space Station as part of the mission (ISS).
♦ NASA, JAXA, and ESA astronauts will travel to the International Space Station. The Japanese Space Agency is known as JAXA, and the European Space Agency is known as ESA.
♦ The Crew Dragon spacecraft was the first to launch humans from American soil in nine years. It was released for the first time in May of 2020. It was previously supported by NASA`s Commercial Crew Program. It originated from a plan known as Dragon 1 in the past. Between 2012 and 2020, Dragon 1 was launched on more than twenty missions to deliver cargo to the International Space Station.
♦ The first time astronauts used a spacecraft designed and launched by a private corporation was with SpaceX Crew 1. It even transported astronauts who had returned to Earth.
♦ Crew Dragon detaches from the International Space Station and returns to Earth this way. The pinnacle`s trunk component burns up in the atmosphere. The thrusters are then enabled for a 15-minute de-orbit burn. The De-orbit burn is the firing of a spacecraft`s engines to enable it to re-enter the atmosphere. When it re-enters the atmosphere, the temperature of the spacecraft reaches 1,600 degrees Celsius. Installation of a parachute from under the nose cone to the perspective capsule to cut through the water and reduce impact.



Indian Expedition To Antarctica - Returns To Cape Town:

The Ministry of Earth Sciences fortieth Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (40-ISEA) successfully returned to Cape Town after completing a journey of around 12,000 nautical miles in 94 days, including stopovers.
This achievement brings India`s scientific endeavour on the continent of peace and cooperation to a close after four years of success. On February 27, the crew arrived at Bharati station in Antarctica, and on March 8, they arrived at Maitri station. India`s permanent research base stations in Antarctica are Maitri and Bharati. Dr. Harsh Vardhan is the Minister of Earth Sciences.
Russia to Launch its Own Space Station
The agreement between Roscosmos and its global partners is due to expire in 2024. In 2025, Russia plans to leave the International Space Station (ISS) and launch its own personal space station.
♦ The International Space Station`s structure, according to Russia, is deteriorating. When the station becomes older, it will have irreversible effects.
♦ In 1998, the International Space Station was launched by means of the United States and Russian space agencies. Canada, the European Space Agency, and Japan were the other countries involved in the construction of the International Space Station. 
♦ The ISS takes ninety-three minutes to orbit the Earth. Every day, it completes 15.5 orbits. It flies at a speed of 7.7 kilometres per second in space.
♦ Following Russia`s departure, the ISS`s future will be determined entirely by the requirements of the station`s technological modules. The majority of the station`s operational modules have reached the end of their service life.
♦ The first core module of the new Russian orbital station is also ready, according to Roscosmos. The module is expected to be launched in 2025, according to Russia. The cost of constructing this new area mannequin is $5 billion USD.
♦ Russia has announced that it has reached an agreement with China to construct a lunar lookup station.
♦ The sixtieth anniversary of Yuri Gagarin becoming the first person to reach orbit in space was commemorated in Russia. Yuri Gagarin was the first person to travel into space. Vostok 1 was the name of his pill. On April 12, 1961, he performed one orbit of the earth on his tablet.

The FOSS4GOV Innovation Challenge aims to accelerate the adoption of free and open source software in government:

To promote the adoption of Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS) in the Indian government, MeitY announces the #FOSS4GOV Innovation Challenge.
Due to the large number of 4G data subscribers in India, 96 percent of whom gain access to the digital world through open-source primarily based cell operating systems, India is well positioned to become a vibrant hub for Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS) innovations (primarily Android). FOSS has also been used to build some of India`s largest government projects (including Aadhaar) as well as several science start-ups. The Indian government released a Policy on Adoption of Open-Source Software in 2015, acknowledging the viability of FOSS.
#FOSS4GOV Innovation Challenge:
The Innovation Challenge invites FOSS innovators, technology entrepreneurs, and Indian startups to apply open-source CRM and ERP product improvements with useful functions for Govtech in areas such as health, education, agriculture, and urban governance. This is a project for local developers to create open-source customer relationship management and organisation help management applications that can be used by Indian government agencies. Incubation funding, prize money, mentorship by domain experts, institutional assistance from eminent agencies for incubation of thoughts, and a list of choices on GeM are all available to participants.

Economy Current Affairs April 3rd Week 2021

Microsoft acquires Nuance, an AI speech technology company:

After LinkedIn, Microsoft has made its second-largest acquisition. Nuance, an AI speech technology firm, has been offered $19.7 billion by the tech giant. The move will aid Microsoft`s voice emphasis and provide it with a boost in the health-care industry. Nuance is known for its Dragon app, which uses deep learning to transcribe expression. Microsoft paid $26 billion for LinkedIn in 2016.
♦ The acquisition will bring together options and expertise to deliver new cloud and AI technologies to healthcare and other sectors, and will mark the next phase in Microsoft`s industry-specific cloud strategy.
♦ Nuance is a leader in the real-world software of employer AI, presenting the AI layer at the healthcare point of shipping.
♦ Nuance`s offerings include a few clinical speech awareness software as a service (SaaS) options built on Microsoft Azure. The company`s products integrate with existing healthcare systems and are currently used in 77 percent of U.S. hospitals.
♦ Microsoft`s CEO is Satya Nadella, and the company`s headquarters are in Redmond, Washington, United States. Mark D. Benjamin is the CEO of Nuance. The headquarters of Nuance are in Massachusetts, USA. In 1992, the United States was the epicentre of nuance.

NASA Awards Contract to Space X:

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States has selected Elon Musk`s SpaceX to build the first commercial lander and send the next two US astronauts to the moon as part of its Artemis programme. This contract is worth $2.89 billion in total.
Under this contract:
♦ By 2024, SpaceX will develop the ‘SpaceX Starship,` a spacecraft that will land alongside two US astronauts, one of whom will be a woman, at the south pole of the country.
♦ NASA additionally goals to carry the first person of colour to the moon’s floor as step of the Artemis programme.
♦ The United States sent 12 astronauts to the moon between 1969 and 1972.

RBI to Cancel Licence of Sambandh Finserve:

Before cancelling the licence of Sambandh Finserve Pvt Ltd., which has been hit hard by fraud, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has given an advance notice. 
♦ The company`s net assets have dropped below regulatory minimums, and its financial condition has worsened in recent months. This item cannot be redeemed. Sambandh has been designated as a non-bank financial institution (NBFC-MFI).
♦ The Economic Crime Department in Chennai has arrested Deepak Kindo, Sambandh`s managing director and CEO, who is reportedly the key perpetrator of the scam. 
♦ The Reserve Bank of India requires the NBFC to maintain a minimum level of capital, including Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital, of not less than 15% of its total risk-weighted assets, according to Reserve Bank of India regulations.
♦ Sambandh Finserve Private Limited is a company based in Odisha that was established in 1992.

National Current Affairs April 3rd Week 2021

Rural Development Ministry`s Gender Samvaad Event:

The Gender Samvaad Event was recently launched by the Ministry of Rural Development. It is a collaboration between DAY-NRLM and IWWAGE. The aim of the Gender Samvaad Match was to raise awareness about gender-related interventions under the DAY-NRLM. Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana National Rural Livelihood Mission is abbreviated as DAY-NRLM. Initiative for What Works to Advance Women and Girls in the Economy (IWWAGE) is an acronym for Initiative for What Works to Advance Women and Girls in the Economy.
About Gender Samvaad:
♦ It provides opportunities to learn from the best practises of various states in order to strengthen girls agencies. For example, encouraging women`s access to land rights and participation in Farmer Producer Organizations, developing strong structures for public service delivery, and promoting good food, nutrition, health, and sanitation practises.
♦ It aids in the global recognition of gender interventions.
♦ In addition, the tournament provides opportunities to engage with experts for advice about how to overcome implementation challenges.
♦ It aims to raise awareness about the importance of focusing attention on gender issues.
Women in DAY-NRLM: DAY-NRLM has reached the process with more than sixty million women. It`s crucial for organising them into Self-Help Groups. These programmes make it easier for women to receive livelihood assistance and provide financial resources.
DAY-NRLM on Gender issues: In 2016, the DAY-NRLM introduced a gender operational approach to address gender issues. This was accomplished by staff training and capacity building. In addition, institutional structures had been put in place so that girls could come to them with their grievances.
DAY-NRLM: It`s a campaign aimed at reducing poverty. It receives some funding from the World Bank. It all started with a goal of covering seven crore rural poor households through Self Help Groups and assisting them with livelihoods.

To handle digital payments, LIC has partnered with Paytm:

The Life Insurance Corporation of India has chosen Paytm, a local payment processor, to handle its digital payments. Following a previous agreement with another charge gateway, the country`s largest current insurer is looking for a new agreement as the bulk of its payments have switched to digital modes.
♦ The new agreement calls for a simple pricing mechanism, a wider range of charge options, and more payment channel players (wallets, banks, and so on). Following the COVID-19 pandemic, LIC has seen an increase in e-payments. The Public Sector Unit insurer collects premiums worth Rs 60,000 crore through digital channels, which excludes bank payments.
♦ LIC Chairperson: M R Kumar;
♦ LIC Headquarters: Mumbai;
♦ LIC Founded: 1 September 1956;
♦ Paytm HQ: Noida, Uttar Pradesh;
♦ Paytm Founder & CEO: Vijay Shekhar Sharma;
♦ Paytm Founded: 2009.

International Current Affairs April 3rd Week 2021

The President of the United States has announced the withdrawal of all US troops from Afghanistan:

President of the United States (Joe Biden) has declared that all American troops will be withdrawn from Afghanistan by September 11, 2021, effectively ending the country`s longest war.
♦ Before the 20th anniversary of the heinous attack on September 11th, US soldiers, as well as forces deployed by NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Allies and operational partners, will be out of Afghanistan (2001).
♦ Biden and his team are fine-tuning a nationwide system to track and counter large-scale terrorist attacks not just in Afghanistan, but also in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and elsewhere.
♦ Before making the announcement, Biden met with former US presidents Barack Obama and George W. Bush.
♦ On February 29, 2020, the US and the Taliban signed a historic agreement in Doha to bring permanent peace to war-torn Afghanistan and enable US troops to return home from America`s longest war.

New Zealand passes the world`s first climate change law for financial firms:

New Zealand is about to become the world`s first nation to enact legislation requiring economic enterprises to account for their impact on climate change by requiring them to keep track of how their businesses affect the environment. 
Key Notes:
♦ The aim is to get the financial zone on board with the country`s efforts to reach its carbon-neutral goal by 2050.
♦ In September of last year, the New Zealand government published its plans to force the economic sector to make disclosures, stating that those who were unable to do so would be required to provide explanations.
♦ Prime minister of New Zealand: Jacinda Ardern.
♦ Capital of New Zealand: Wellington.
♦ The forex of New Zealand: New Zealand dollar.
India Elected To 3 Bodies Of The UN ECOSOC:
In recent years, India has been elected to three United Nations bodies. The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, the Executive Board of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and Women`s Empowerment, and the Executive Board of the World Food Programme were the three entities. All three of our bodies are subordinate to the UN Economic and Social Council.
♦ India was elected by acclamation to all three of these bodies. Honoring others is referred to as acclamation. A vote is no longer used when a member country is elected by acclamation. Other member foreign places, on the other hand, were elected to these bodies by secret ballot. On January 1, 2022, India`s term for these bodies will begin.
♦ When a member of the United Nations stands for election with a blank slate, the vote is held by acclamation. There is no history of proof of any issues with the Clean Slate abilities.
♦ When acclamation elections are held at the United Nations, the secret ballot may be used. In all UN bodies, acclamation voting is no longer permitted. In certain UN bodies, such as the Human Rights Council, election by acclamation is completely prohibited.
♦ Cuba, Chile, Paraguay, Dominican Republic, and Brazil were the other countries elected to the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice by secret ballot. Bahrain, Austria, Bulgaria, Belarus, France, Canada, Libya, Ghana, Qatar, Pakistan, Togo, and Thailand were among the countries that were elected by acclamation.
♦ Executive Board of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and Women`s Empowerment: Ukraine, Turkmenistan, Thailand, South Africa, Poland, Monaco, Kenya, Guyana, Gambia, Egypt, Colombia, Cameroon, Bangladesh, Australia, Dominican Republic, and Afghanistan were elected to the board by acclamation.

Important Days Current Affairs April 2nd Week 2021

World Hemophilia Day is on 17th April:

Every year on April 17th, World Hemophilia Day is commemorated. This day is commemorated by the World Hemophilia Federation. In addition to this organisation, World Hemophilia Day is observed by a number of other international organisations.
♦ The commemoration of World Hemophilia Day has raised public awareness of hereditary bleeding disorders. People from all over the world gathered on this day to discuss the most recent advancements in haemophilia care.
♦ The World Hemophilia Federation is recognised by the World Health Organisation, and the two organisations have had an official relationship since 1969.
♦ It was founded by Frank Schnabel, a Montreal-based businessman. His birthday is April 17th, and he has serious haemophilia. He was the one who established the World Hemophilia League.
♦ Haemophilia: This is a genetic bleeding condition in which the blood does not clot properly.
♦ Adapting to Change, Preserving Treatment in a New Environment is the theme for 2021. Because of the spread of the covid-19 pandemic, this theme was chosen.

Awards Current Affairs April 2nd Week 2021

Nomadland Won Four Prizes in BAFTA Awards:

The film Nomadland was nominated for four BAFTA Awards. The British Academy of Film and Television Arts is abbreviated as BAFTA. Best film, best director, best actress, and best photography went to The Nomadland.
♦ Chloe Zhao, a film producer, became the first and only woman of colour to receive the BAFTA Best Director Award. Frances McDormand took home the award for best actress. This is a drama set in the United States. The "People`s Choice Award" and the "Golden Globe Award" were also given to the film.
♦ The revenge comedy Promising Young Woman, directed by Emerald Fennell, was called the best British film (BAFTA Awards). Anthony Hopkins, who is 83 years old, was named best actor.
♦ In two categories, the Indian Netflix film "White Tiger" was nominated for best actor and best adapted screenplay. Neither of the nominations was accepted.
♦ The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) seeks to honour the best achievements of the foreign and British film industries. The British Film Academy was founded in 1947. The British Academy of Film and Television Arts combined with the Television Association Producers and Directors in 1976 to form the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA).
♦ The Golden Lion Award is the highest honour bestowed by the Venice Film Festival on a film.
♦ The Golden Globe Award is a film award given in the United States. The Hollywood Foreign Press Association has suggested it since 1943. (Hollywood Foreign Press Association).
Golden Leopard: At the Locarno International Film Festival, it was screened.
Film Awards: The Hindi film industry will be the focus. It is run by the Times Group.
Golden Bear Award: The Berlin International Film Festival screened the film.

National Current Affairs April 2nd Week 2021

Basic Savings Account in Post Offices:

The amendments to the postal savings account programme for 2019 were recently announced by the Ministry of Finance. Beneficiaries of government welfare programmes can now open simple savings bank accounts at any post office in the country, according to the Ministry of Finance.
♦ You can open an account with the Indian Post Payment Bank or a commercial bank of your choice. The account can be opened with no money down.
♦ The beneficiary of every government benefit package should open the account. The account should also be opened by the minor`s beneficiary. Minors, on the other hand, must nominate a guardian.
♦ The new notice excludes basic savings accounts established under the 1981 post office savings account law.
♦ The account was set up under the Pradhan Mantri Yojana. A simple savings account is the Jan Dhan Yojana. A total of 422,000 accounts have been created so far. They currently have a 14.5 crore rupee balance.
♦ A simple savings account is the post office savings account. The minimum amount required to open an account is 500 rupees. The minimum deposit is ten rupees, and there is no limit to the amount you can deposit.

Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Jamakkalam Weavers:

The Covid pandemic has had a negative effect on GI-labeled Bhavani jamakkalam development.
♦ Bhavani Jamakkalam refers to blankets and rugs made in Bhavani, Tamil Nadu`s Erode District.
♦ The Indian government has recognised it as a geographical indication.
♦ Geographical indicators (GI) are symbols that appear on goods with a particular geographical origin and a quality or reputation that can be traced back to that origin.
♦ Many goods, such as agricultural products, food, wine and spirits, handicrafts, and industrial products, use geographical indications.
♦ Darjeeling tea was the first commodity in India to receive a Geographical Indication (GI) code.
♦ A geographical indication`s registration is valid for ten years, after which it must be revised. Geographical indications (Registration and Protection) of Commodities Act 1999 governs geographical indications in India.

Science & Technology Current Affairs April 2nd Week 2021

Lithium-Ion Battery Performance Enhancement Technique

IIT Guwahati researchers have developed a technology to boost the efficiency of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which power the majority of today`s portable devices.
♦ The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was shared by Stanley Whittingham, John Goodenough, and Akira Yoshino for their contributions to the production of lithium-ion batteries.
♦ Most cell phones, smart phones, tablets, laptops, power banks, and other machines use these batteries.
♦ The majority of electric vehicles (EVs) today use lithium-ion batteries, but they are approaching their theoretical limit of 300 watt-hours of electrical energy per kilogramme of energy.
♦ These batteries may also be used to store solar and wind energy, which means that if they are widely used, we can be able to live in a world without using fossil fuels.
New Services of National Internet Exchange of India:
The National Internet Exchange of India has introduced three new programs/services, according to the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) (NIXI).
Three new services:
♦ IPv6 Expert Group (IP Expert): The team assists all Indian organisations who are having technical difficulties migrating to and adopting IPv6. It will provide services at no cost. The Department of Telecommunications (DOT), MeitY, and industry have collaborated on this project.
♦ NIXI Academy: The NIXI Academy was founded to teach technical and non-technical staff in India how to learn and re-learn IPv6 and other technologies that are not typically taught in educational institutions. Effective candidates will receive an NIXI certificate after passing the test, which will assist them in finding/upgrading jobs in the industry.
♦ NIXI-IP-INDEX: For the Internet world, the National Internet Exchange of India has created an IPv6 index portal. The NIXI-IP-INDEX portal will show the adoption rate of IPv6 in India and around the world.
♦ It can be used to equate the rate of IPv6 adoption in India to that of other countries.
♦ It will also provide extensive details on the Web`s adoption in IPv6, IPv6 traffic, and other topics.
♦ Since 2003, NIXI has been dedicated to spreading Internet infrastructure to Indian people, as specified by Article 8 of the 2013 Companies Act.
Outbreak of Suspected African Swine Fever:

In Mizoram`s Longri area, a suspected outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) has killed 276 domestic pigs. Local authorities banned the purchase and supply of live pigs from the affected areas and the surrounding areas as part of preventative measures. 

♦ ASF is a highly infectious and lethal animal disease that usually causes acute hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs and wild boars. 
♦ In the 1920s, it was found in Africa for the first time. 
♦ The mortality rate is close to 100%, and because the disease cannot be cured, the only way to stop it from spreading is to cull animals. 
♦ ASF is not a threat to humans since it only spreads from one species to another. 
♦ “Its extremely high capacity for cross-border transmission puts all countries in the area at risk, once again allowing the spectre of ASF to escape from Africa,” according to the FAO. This is becoming a more significant factor in global food security and household income. Diseases of strategic importance"


Discovery of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy:

A new active galaxy has been discovered by astronomers. The galaxy was discovered to be the farthest gamma-ray emitting galaxy ever discovered.
♦ The Narrow-line Sever 1 (NLS1) galaxy, which is about 31 billion light-years away, is an active galaxy. It paves the way for the discovery of more gamma-ray emitting galaxies.
♦ Through the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), scientists from ARIES, the Autonomous Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of the Government of India, researched around 25,000 luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) and discovered a unique object. The object emits high-energy gamma rays with a high redshift (greater than 1). They named it as the NLS1 galaxy, which is a peculiar gamma-ray emitting galaxy in space.
♦ For the last 20 years, the SDSS has become the primary optical imaging and spectroscopy study of astronomical phenomena. The University of Chicago founded it.

International Current Affairs April 2nd Week 2021

In the Indian EEZ, the US conducts a Freedom of Navigation operation:
India has expressed its dissatisfaction with the United States` decision to patrol the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the western Indian Ocean.
♦ The US Navy said its battleship John Paul Jones conducted freedom of navigation operations in India`s exclusive economic zone, saying the operations "challenge" India`s "excessive maritime requirements."
♦ Without India`s permission, the ship asserted the right and freedom of navigation about 130 nautical miles west of the Lakshadweep Islands in India`s exclusive economic zone.
♦ The Indian government`s stance on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is that it "does not allow other countries to conduct military exercises or exercises in the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, particularly those military exercises or exercises in the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, especially those military exercises or exercises in the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf." Involves the use of firearms or explosives without the permission of the coastal state.

♦ The United States has yet to ratify the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which India did in 1995.

World Energy Transitions Outlook - 1.5C Pathway:

The "World Energy Transition Outlook" report was published by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). 
♦ The study suggests an energy conversion solution for the narrow path that can be used to keep the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius under control. 
♦ The COVID-19 crisis offers countries unanticipated opportunities to decouple their economies from fossil fuels and accelerate the transition to renewable energy. 
♦ Renewable energy is expected to meet 90% of total electricity demand by 2050, followed by natural gas, and nuclear energy for the remaining 10%. 
♦ The agency has established 30 new ways to integrate wind and solar photovoltaic energy into the power grid.
♦ The International Renewable Energy Agency is a non-profit organisation that works to promote renewable energy worldwide. Its aim is to encourage collaboration as well as the adoption and long-term use of renewable energy. It was founded in 2009. Its rules became effective in 2010. IRENA`s headquarters are in Masdar City, Abu Dhabi. IRENA is a United Nations official observer.

National Current Affairs April 2nd Week 2021

INS Sarvekshak On A Deployment To Mauritius:

The INS Sarvekshak hydrographic survey ship is being deployed to Mauritius to perform joint hydrographic surveys with its Mauritius counterparts. 
♦ Mauritian staff will be qualified in specialised hydrological equipment and practises throughout the deployment phase. The ship began conducting hydrological surveys in the "Port Louis deep sea region." 
♦ The INS Sarvekshak is a specialist survey ship with cutting-edge survey equipment including a deep sea multi-beam echo sounder, side scan sonar, and a fully automated digital measurement and processing system. 
♦ In addition, the ship is outfitted with a Chetak helicopter that will be used extensively throughout the investigation. 
♦ INS Sarvekshak has conducted international cooperation inquiries in Mauritius, Seychelles, Tanzania, and Kenya in recent years.

Environment Current Affairs April 2nd Week 2021

Volcano Erupts in South Caribbean:

The La Sourfriere volcano on the Caribbean Sea`s eastern island recently erupted after decades of inactivity. Thousands of people were forced to flee their homes as a result of the volcano. 
♦ The volcano has been inactive since 1979. In December 2020, it started to display signs of life. In 1979, the volcano erupted, causing $100 million in damage. La Sourfriere erupted in 1902, killing thousands of people before the 1979 eruption. 
♦ In French, La Soufriere means "sulphur selling." Since 1718, it has erupted five times. The volcano of La Sourfriere is a stratiform volcano. It is the island`s youngest and northernmost volcano. The Caribbean tectonic plate contains the volcano La Soufriere. 
♦ The Caribbean Sea is an Americas zone made up of the Caribbean Sea. In this location, there are over 700 islands. Climate change poses a significant threat to Caribbean islands. The Caribbean is the source of the word. One of the most important Native American groups in the area is the Caribs. 
♦ The tectonic plates that make up the Caribbean are mostly oceanic. The Nazca plate, the Cocos plate, the North American plate, and the South American plate are all adjacent to the Caribbean plate. The boundary is a high-seismic-activity zone. 
♦ The Caribbean is bordered on the west by Mexico and on the southwest by Central America. The Great Antilles are to the north of the Caribbean Sea, while the Lesser Antilles are to the east. The Mesoamerican barrier reef, located in the Caribbean Sea, is the world`s second largest barrier reef. The coasts of Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Mexico are home to coral reefs.

Illegal Sale of Danube Sturgeon:

The illegal selling of Danube St fish, one of the world`s most endangered species, is rampant in the lower Danube area, especially in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine, according to a report released by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
♦ After the Volga, the Danube is Europe`s second longest river. It originates in the Black Forest mountains of western Germany and flows 2,850 kilometres to the Black Sea`s mouth.
♦ Fish have been around for about 200 million years, dating back to the time of the dinosaurs. Some of these species can reach lengths of up to eight metres and can live for over a century.
♦ They are referred to as "living fossils" because their presence has remained relatively unchanged over time. A fossil is a living species that hasn`t changed much since the beginning of time, and its immediate relatives are normally extinct. Horse and Ginkgo are examples of living fossils, in addition to St fish.
♦ There are 27 species of fish and pad fish in the northern hemisphere. While some species only live in freshwater, the majority of species are planktonic and lay eggs in freshwater, but have spent the majority of their lives in the ocean or in a brackish climate.
♦ The Danube Sturgeon lives mostly in the Black Sea and migrates to the Danube`s upper reaches and other large rivers to lay eggs.
♦ The World Wildlife Fund is the largest conservation agency in the world, with operations in over 100 countries and regions. Its headquarters are in Grande, Switzerland, where it was established in 1961. The aim is to protect the environment and mitigate the most serious threats to the planet`s biodiversity.

Memorandum of Understanding Current Affairs April 1st Week 2021

MoU between Spices Board and UNDP:

A memorandum of understanding was signed by Spices Board India and UNDP India Accelerator Laboratory to establish a blockchain-based traceability interface for Indian spices. 
♦ The MOU aims to create a blockchain-based traceability interface for Indian spices in order to increase supply chain and trade transparency. 
♦ A decentralised mechanism for documenting transactions on a transparent and shared electronic ledger is known as blockchain. 
♦ This simplifies the supply chain by making data processing simple and transparent across diverse networks (including producers, brokers, dealers, processors, retailers, regulators, and consumers). 
♦ It will give farmers the same access to knowledge as the rest of the supply chain, making the whole system more productive and equal. 
♦ The Spices Board of India is collaborating with the United Nations Development Programme to incorporate the blockchain traceability interface with the Spices Board of India`s e-Spice Bazaar portal, which connects spice growers to the market. 
♦ The project will be piloted among more than 3,000 farmers engaged in pepper and turmeric planting in parts of Andhra Pradesh. 
♦ Consumer confidence is expected to rise as a result of the traceability interface, which is expected to encourage the purchasing of value-added and used fragrances for export and domestic use. 



Economy Days Current Affairs April 1st Week 2021

Digital Currency of China:

In February, China began the latest round of pilot trials for its new digital currency. According to news, the proposal will be implemented on a wide scale by the end of this year, just in time for the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics. 
♦ The digital renminbi, formally known as "Digital Currency Electronic Payment (DCEP)," is a digital version of Chinese currency that can be downloaded and exchanged through a People`s Bank of China-approved application (PBOC). 
♦ This is legal tender, backed by the central bank, rather than money backed by a third party. There are no transaction costs and there are no third-party transactions. 
♦ Digital currencies, unlike electronic wallets, do not require an Internet connection. Near Field Communication (NFC) is used to make the charge. 
♦ Unlike non-bank payment platforms that require users to connect a bank account, a personal identification code may be used to open an account. 
World Economic Outlook International Monetary Fund:
The World Economic Outlook, Managing Recovery in Different Environments, was published by the International Monetary Fund. 
♦ According to the report, India`s GDP will rise by 12.5 percent in the current fiscal year 2022. This is 1% higher than the previous estimate in January 2021, which was 11.5 percent. Among emerging economies and elite developed economies, this is the largest. 
♦ Furthermore, India`s growth forecast for 2023 has been increased from 6.8% to 6.9%. The International Monetary Fund had previously forecast that India`s growth rate will be 6.8%. 
♦ The global economy is forecast to expand by 6% in 2021 before slowing to 4.4 percent in 2022. The global economy will contract by 3.3 percent by 2020. 
♦ China`s GDP has recovered to pre-COVID levels in 2020, according to this study. Many other nations, on the other hand, are not expected to restart production until 2023. 
♦ The hotel and catering industries have experienced significant production and job losses as a result of COVID-19. North America, India, and China, according to the survey, are expected to recover quickly. 
♦ In terms of vaccination, the United Kingdom and the United States both outperform the economy. Asia, on the other hand, is lagging behind in vaccine growth. 
♦ The economy dependent on tourism has been hit hard. For example: Spain. 
♦ Unlike the financial crisis of 2008, the global economic recovery seems to have taken a detour (one is higher than the other). This is due to the fact that vaccines are introduced in various ways in different parts of the world. Furthermore, financial assistance varies by place. 
International Monetary Fund: 
♦ The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was founded after WWII to aid in the reconstruction of countries that had been affected by the conflict. It was established in 1945. 189 countries control and pay for it. In 1945, India became a member of the International Monetary Fund. The International Monetary Fund also published the "Global Financial Stability Report" in addition to the "World Economic Outlook." 

Science & Technology Current Affairs April 1st Week 2021

Baikal-GVD (Gigaton Volume Detector) - Russia

Baikal-GVD (Gigaton volume detector), one of the world`s largest underwater neutrino telescopes, was launched in the waters of Lake Baikal, the world`s deepest Siberian lake. 
♦ It is one of the world`s three largest neutrino detectors, alongside IceCube at the South Pole and ANTARES in the Mediterranean. 
♦ It aims to investigate in depth the enigmatic elementary particles known as neutrinos, with the goal of determining their origin. 
About Neutrinos: 
♦ Wolfgang Pauli, a Swiss physicist, suggested neutrinos for the first time in 1930. They are the universe`s second most common particle, coming in second only to the photons that make up light.  
♦ In reality, neutrinos are so plentiful among us that over 100 trillion pass directly through each of us every second, and we are completely unaware of it. 
♦ Scientists will be able to better understand the origin of the universe by observing neutrinos, which were created during the Big Bang and continue to be formed due to supernova explosions or the sun`s nuclear reaction.
Flash Flood Killed People in Indonesia:
Heavy rains in eastern Indonesia triggered landslides and flash floods, killing at least 41 people and displacing thousands. 
Flash Flood: 
Floods that occur within six hours of heavy rain or for other causes are known as flash floods. These are very localised and short-lived occurrences. Flash floods, on the other hand, can happen in a matter of minutes or hours after heavy rain. Flash flooding can be caused by more than just heavy rain. Huge quantities of water may be inadvertently brought into low-lying areas by melting snow and ice in mountain streams. Similarly, a dam failure will cause a wall of water to rush downstream with no warning. 
Flash floods are difficult to predict. The number of events has risen as a result of climate change. The Himalayas are a tumultuous mountain range. Ignoring environmental legislation can result in flooding, which is most commonly seen when dams are built without proper risk assessment.
India`s role:
India is leading a national delegation to exchange hydrological and meteorological data in order to prepare flash flood forecasts, which includes Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Nepal.
The framework was created in collaboration with the Indian Central Water Commission (CWC) and the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). The South Asian Flash Flood Guidance System (FFGS) was introduced by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) to aid disaster management teams and the government in developing timely evacuation plans before floods occur. 

Chaff Technology by DRDO

To shield naval ships from enemy missile attacks, the DRDO has evolved advanced Chaff Technology. 
♦ The Defense Laboratory Jodhpur (DLJ) of the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) Laboratories has developed three variants of the technology: Short Range Chaff Rocket (SRCR), Medium Range Chaff Rocket (MRCR), and Long Range Chaff Rocket (LRCR). 
♦ The Indian Navy needs the Chaff Rocket (MRCR) and the Long Range Chaff Rocket (LRCR). 
♦ Chaff is a passive, expendable electronic countermeasure system that is used to defend naval ships from enemy radar and RF (radio frequency) missile seekers all over the world. 
♦The significance of this advancement stems from the fact that there are only a few husks in the air capable of fooling enemy missiles and ensuring the protection of ships.

Important Days Current Affairs April 1st Week 2021

International Day of Conscience is on 5th April

The International Day of Conscience is celebrated on April 5th. The goal of the day is to foster a culture of tolerance, compassion, and conscience. This day serves as a reminder to people to think about themselves, obey their hearts, and do the right thing.  
The idea of a culture of peace was first proposed at the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization`s International Peace Conference in July 1989. (UNESCO). 
The aim of this day is to foster a peaceful society by encouraging people to engage in cultural, social, comprehensive education, and civic activities. 
Everyone has something to learn in this harmony, as well as something to contribute and share. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has declared April 5 as International Day of Conscience in order to promote peaceful and friendly relations based on respect for human rights and basic freedoms of race, gender, language, and religion. 
The United Nations General Assembly passed a draught resolution introduced by Bahrain titled "Promoting a Culture of Peace with Love and Conscience" on July 25, 2019. Following that, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed April 5 to be International Day of Conscience. On April 5, 2020, this date was first observed.
National Maritime Day 2021 - 58th Edition:
Every year on April 5, India commemorates National Maritime Day. 
About National Maritime Day: 
♦ Every year on April 5, India commemorates the first voyage of the first Indian-flagged merchant ship "S.S.LOYALTY" from Mumbai to London in 1919 on National Maritime Day. 
♦ "National Maritime Day" is a day set aside to honour Indian seafarers. Take this opportunity to express your appreciation to the naval personnel who work around the clock in the country to ensure that basic supplies are provided on time. 
♦ Thousands of Indians were trapped in other countries due to the coronavirus`s forced lockdown during the pandemic, and seafarers risked their lives to bring them back.

National Current Affairs April 1st Week 2021

ULPIN Pin is a special land parcel identification number issued by the government:

Within a year, the central government plans to grant a 14-digit identification number to each piece of land in India. 
♦ It would then, on a voluntary basis, merge its land records database with income court records, bank records, and Aadhaar numbers. 
♦ In 2021, ten states will implement the Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) system. 
♦ It will be promoted across India in March 2022 
♦ This number will uniquely identify each land under investigation and prevent land fraud, particularly in rural India, as it is referred to as "the Aadhaar for land." 
♦ The plot`s longitude and latitude will be used to classify it, as well as detailed surveys and geo-referenced cadastral maps. 
♦ This is the next step in the "Digital Indian Land Record Modernization Program" (DILRMP), which began in 2008 and has increased in scale many times.
Military Farms - Indian Army Has Closed Them:
The Indian army`s military farm was closed on March 31 after 132 years of service. The military farm was built to provide sanitary milk to the entire British Indian garrison. 
♦ Both farm officials and staff have been redeployed within the ministry to continue to provide services to the company now that the military farm has been closed. 
♦ Several plans have been made in the past to close the farm. 
♦ The Quarter Master General division suggested closing in 2012. 
♦ In December 2016, the DB Shekatkar (retd) Committee recommended that the farm be closed once more. 
♦ On February 1, 1889, the first military farm was built in Allahabad. 
♦ 30,000 cattle were added to 130 farms across India after independence. 
♦ Also farms were established in Leh and Kargil in the 1990s. 
♦ These farms have produced 35 million litres of milk and 25,000 tonnes of hay per year for over a century. 
♦ The farm must be located far away from the city, so a farm is needed. 
♦ With the growth of cities, cantonments have expanded into towns, and milk is increasingly purchased on the open market. 
♦ People have also uncovered numerous allegations of corruption involving the farm over the years. One of the reasons for the farm`s closure is because of this. 
♦ The farm was also celebrated for pioneering artificial insemination technology for cattle and establishing an organised dairy industry in India. 
♦ These farms provided Yeoman-style services during the 1971 War, supplying milk to the Northern Command on the front lines of the Western and Eastern War and during Operation Kargil. 

Directorate General of Training Vocational Training:

The Directorate General of Training (DGT), which is part of the Ministry of Skills Development and Entrepreneurship, is the supreme agency in charge of developing and coordinating national vocational training programmes (including women`s vocational training). DGT also runs field institutes under its direct supervision that provide technical training in a variety of fields. 
Major functions of the DGT: 
♦ Create general policies, guidelines, and requirements for vocational training. 
♦ Diversify, refresh, and extend the number of training facilities for craftsmen. 
♦ In specially developed training institutions, organise and conduct advanced training and study. 
♦ Implement, govern, and broaden the scope of apprenticeship training in compliance with the Apprenticeship Act of 1961. 
♦ Organize women`s workforce training services.
♦ Assist with career planning and job placement. 
♦ Provide paid work and self-employment assistance to scheduled castes/tribes and disabled people.

Environment Current Affairs April 1st Week 2021

Forest Fire in Shirui Mountain:

The state government of Manipur has requested assistance from the federal government to put out a forest fire at the top of Shirui Mountain in Manipur`s Ukhrul District. 
Shirui Kashong Peak: 
♦ Shirui Kashong Peak is a tourist attraction in Manipur`s Ukhrul district. The elevation is 2835 metres above sea level.
This mountain has two main attractions: 
♦ The river that flows through Ukhrul and Barry Lily. Shirui Kashong Peak is located in Manipur`s Ukhrul district.
♦ Shirui Kashong Peak`s main attractions are the unusual Lilium mackliniae (Shirui lily) and the river in Ukhrul district. Shirui aze and Shirui ato are the two villages that make up Shirui. Antu Bairui has 100 households with a total population of 472 people, while Azebai Rui has 184 households with a total population of 793 people.
♦ Shirui`s residents speak the Shirui dialect, which is part of the Tibetan-Burman language family. Shirui Lily Festival is a week-long festival held in Shirui. In 2017, it was declared a national holiday.
The Earliest Cherry Blossoms Ever Seen in Japan
The cherry blossoms in Japan are in full bloom, according to the Japan Meteorological Agency. Japanese cherry trees typically bloom in April. The cherry blossoms are ten days earlier this year. This is Japan`s first cherry blossom rose, which bloomed earlier. The first cherry blossoms in Japan were seen in the year 1200. 
♦ Cherry trees started flowering in early 812 AD, according to Osaka University in Japan. Climate change and global warming are mostly to blame. From 47.5 degrees Fahrenheit in 1953 to 51.1 degrees Fahrenheit in 2020, Japan`s average temperature has risen. 
♦ In Japan, the arrival of cherry blossoms normally heralds the start of spring. Sakura is the Japanese word for cherry blossoms. 
♦ Japan organises flower viewing or flower viewing events throughout the cherry blossom season. Hanami has a long background in Japan. In the year 710 AD, the art of flower beauty started. 
♦ Cherry blossoms are a type of flower. The cherry tree is a cherry tree that is grown for ornamental purposes. They are not to be confused with edible cherry trees. 
♦ Cherry tree leaves secrete a hormone that stops the flowers from blooming any longer. When the temperature increases, this hormone is no longer secreted. The flowers are in full bloom as the weather warms up. Hormones began secreting this year as a result of climate change, and flowers entered this stage earlier than average. 
♦ Sakura trees can be found in the world. They are most common in the northern hemisphere, especially in temperate climates. Japan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, China, South Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Indonesia are among the countries involved. 
♦ Sakura can be found in Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Mount Garo, and Mount Kasi in India. The Cherry Blossom Festival in India takes place in the autumn (i.e. October and November). Cherry blossoms are well-known in Shillong.

International Current Affairs April 1st Week 2021

Exercise SHANTIR OGROSHENA 2021 - Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, the Indian army took part in the multinational military exercise SHANTIR OGROSHENA. 

About Ex Shantir Ogroshena: 

♦ To celebrate the 100th birthday of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujipur Rah Mann, a multinational military exercise called "SHANTIR OGROSHENA 2021" (Front Runner of the Peace) will be conducted in Bangladesh. 

♦ In April 2021, the DOGRA Corps will take part in exercises with the Royal Bhutan Army, the Sri Lanka Army, and the Bangladesh Army. 

♦ "Robust Peacekeeping Operations" is the theme of this exercise.

 ♦ Military observers from the United States, the United Kingdom, Turkey, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Singapore will be present in the exercise.

Naval Exercise of India and France:
This month, India will take part in French naval exercises in the Bay of Bengal. This would be the Indian Navy`s first participation in a French naval exercise. La Perouse is the name of the exercise.  
♦ The exercise will include Japan, Australia, and the United States of America. According to the French Embassy, two French navy ships, Surcouf and Tonnerre, docked in Kochi from March 30 to April 1. After that, they`ll set out for the Bay of Bengal to take part in the exercise. From April 5th to 7th, the French naval exercise La Perouse will take place.
♦ This exercise would include France, India, the United States, Australia, and Japan. The Surcouf and Tonnerre were the two French ships that competed in the La Perouse competition at Kochi port. In 2019, France, the United States, Australia, and Japan hosted the first La Perouse. The Indian and French naval exercises are known as the Varuna Naval Exercises. It was done for the first time in 1983. Then came La Perouse, and then the Arabian Sea`s Varuna.

India Joined E9 Initiative:

India has teamed up with eight other countries to speed up digital learning.
About E9 Initiative: 
♦ Nine nations, including India, China, and Brazil, will examine the possibility of co-creating and expanding digital learning in order to meet the UN`s quality education targets for sustainable growth. 
♦ The E9 initiative is the name of this consultation "The first of three phases in a three-phase process to co-create a digital learning and skills initiative for marginalised children and youth, especially girls. The plan seeks to facilitate rapid reform in the education system in order to speed up recovery and advance the SDG 4 agenda." 
♦ India, Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan are the E9 nations. 
♦ Countries will partner to encourage improvements in teacher support, expertise investment, and closing the digital divide. 
♦ The meeting will concentrate on success, sharing knowledge and lessons learned, and looking for ways to collaborate and expand digital learning and skills. 
♦ This work was done in response to the COVID pandemic, which disrupted learning and, according to UNESCO, presented an opportunity to improve interconnected and digital economies.