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International Current Affairs October 4th Week 2020

Japan aims to reach net-zero emissions by 2050:

Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga has declared the country`s target of achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions and becoming carbon neutral by 2050.
♦ Yoshihide Suga - Responding to climate change is no longer a constraint on economic growth.
♦ Yoshihide Suga - Need to change our thinking to the view that taking assertive measures against climate change will lead to changes in industrial structure and the economy that will bring about great growth.
♦ In addition to boosting research and development in these fields, the country will foster a digital society that will make daily life more dependent on smart technologies.
♦ Japan, the fifth largest carbon dioxide emitter in the world, has set admirable targets, some of which are uncertain of the country`s ability to meet its target by 2050, given that the nation`s heavy dependence on coal after the 2011 Fukushima disaster led to the closure of many nuclear reactors.
♦ The country`s current target of no greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 is consistent with the EU, which has already set a 30-year carbon-neutral target.
♦ In the second half of the century, instead of setting an explicit deadline, Japan had previously promised carbon neutrality "as soon as possible," as its long-term climate policy was to slash emissions by 80 percent from 2010 levels by 2050.
♦ According to the 2016 Japan Executive Summary, the gross greenhouse gas emissions of the country were 1,322 million tonnes of carbon dioxide in the fiscal year, which represented a 0.2 percent decrease in total emissions compared to FY2015.

MoC between India and Japan:

Cabinet approves Memorandum of Cooperation between India and Japan on cooperation in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs).


♦ The Memorandum of Cooperation (MoC) is expected to contribute to strengthening bilateral cooperation and mutual understanding in the field of communications 

♦ Moc will serve as a strategic initiative for India as Japan is an important partner with “Special Strategic and Global Partnership” status.

♦ The MoC will further enhance opportunities for India to get into the global standardization process.

♦ The MoC will help in cooperation between both countries in various fields like 5G network, telecom security, submarine cable, standard certification of communication equipment, utilization of latest wireless technologies and ICTs, ♦ ICTs capacity building, public protection and disaster relief, artificial intelligence (AI)/block chain, spectrum chain, spectrum management, cooperation on multilateral platforms, etc.


Electricity Access In India And Benchmarking Distribution Utilities Report:

NITI Aayog, Ministry of Power, Rockefeller Foundation, and Smart Power India launched the ‘Electricity Access in India and Benchmarking Distribution Utilities’ report on October 28, 2020.
♦ According to the report, 92% of customers reported the overall availability of electricity infrastructure within 50 metres of their premises.
♦ And 87 per cent of the surveyed customers have access to grid-based electricity. The remaining 13 per cent can use non-grid sources or do not use any electricity at all.
♦ The hours of supply have improved significantly across the customer categories to nearly 17 hrs/day.
♦ The report is based on a primary survey conducted across ten states, representing about 65 per cent of the total rural population of India and with a sample size of more than 25 thousand, including households, commercial enterprises and institutions.
♦ The report highlights the benefits of government-led schemes such as Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana and Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana.
♦ The key recommendations provided in the report in the areas of policy and regulation, process improvement and infrastructure will be utilized for improving the power distribution sector.
♦ The report underlines some best practices adopted by the better-performing electricity distribution utilities in India and provides key recommendations to enhance sustainable electricity access.

Business & Economy Current Affairs October 4th Week 2020

IFSCA Authority Board approves two Regulations:

A meeting of the IFSCA - International Financial Services Centres Authority was held on October 27, 2020. The Board, after detailed discussion, approved the following regulations - International Financial Services Centres Authority (Bullion Exchange) Regulations, 2020 and International Financial Services Centres Authority (Global In-House Centres) Regulations, 2020.
International Financial Services Centres Authority (Bullion Exchange) Regulations, 2020:
The GoI - Government of India, on the recommendation of IFSCA, notified the bullion spot delivery contract and bullion depository receipt (with bullion as underlying) as Financial Products and related services as Financial Services under the IFSCA Act, 2019 on August 31, 2020. The Authority approved the draft bullion regulations, which paves the way for setting up the entire ecosystem for bullion trading, namely, bullion exchange, depository, clearinghouse and vaults.
The salient aspects of the Bullion Exchange Regulations include:
♦ Functions and general obligations of a bullion exchange and clearing corporation
♦ Ownership and governance structure of a bullion exchange and clearing corporation
♦ Rights and Obligations of Bullion Depositories, Participants and Beneficial Owners
♦ The grant of registration to a vault manager by the Authority 
♦ The role of bullion depositories
♦ Other operational aspects of the bullion exchange
The Bullion Exchange Regulations envisage providing an integrated platform for all the market intermediaries including trading members/ clearing members, bullion depositories, vault managers, etc. so as to facilitate transparency and traceability in the bullion market and standardisation of bullion contracts.
International Financial Services Centres Authority (Global In-House Centres) Regulations, 2020:
Government of India, on the recommendation of IFSCA, had notified Global In-House Centres (GIC) as financial service to provide services relating to financial products and financial services on October 16, 2020.
Some salient features of the regulations are as follows:
♦ Global In-house Centres (GIC) may conduct its business in any mode permitted by the Authority. The applicant entity shall exclusively serve to its financial services group wherein the entities served must be located in a FATF - Financial Action Task Force compliant jurisdiction.
♦ A financial services group is an entity which is regulated by a financial services regulator or any other competent body regulating financial services activities in its home jurisdiction.
♦ The support services provided should be for the purpose of carrying out a financial service in respect of a financial product. A Global In-House Centres (GIC) set up within the IFSC shall be entitled to avail itself of all concessions.
♦ India is emerging as global`s leading centre of digitization, with one of the largest pool of digital talents. Global In-house Centres (GIC) in India have been contributing to the development of a highly-skilled talent pool in the country. 

Memorandum of Understanding Current Affairs October 4th Week 2020

India Post, US Postal Service signs an agreement:

Department of Posts, Government of India - India Post and United States Postal Service - USPS have signed an agreement for Electronic Exchange of Customs data related to postal shipments exchanged between the two countries.
♦The agreement signed will allow to transmit and receive electronic data of international postal items prior to their physical arrival at the destination and would enable customs clearance of postal items in advance in line with the evolving global postal framework.
♦The agreement will also improve the performance of postal services in terms of reliability, visibility and security.
♦The USA is the top export destination for India which is also reflected in the exchange of goods through the postal channel. 
♦In 2019, around 20% of outbound EMS and 30% of Letters & Small Packets transmitted by India Post were destined to the USA whereas 60% of the Parcels received by India Post were originated from the USA. 
♦Exchange of Electronic Advance Data (EAD) as per the Agreement will be a key driver towards promoting mutual trade with emphasis on the exports from different parts of India to the USA.
♦The primary objective that will be served by this agreement is to facilitate ‘ease of exports’ for small and large exporters through postal channels from different parts of the country and will contribute towards making India an Export Hub for the world.

Environment Current Affairs October 4th Week 2020

Newly identified tectonically active zone in the Himalayas:

The Indus Suture Zone (ISZ) or the suture zone of the Himalayas in the Ladakh region where Indian & Asian Plates are joined has been found to be tectonically active, as against current understanding that it is a locked zone. This may have major implications in terms of earthquake study, prediction, understanding the seismic structure of the mountain chains well as its evolution.


♦ Scientists from WIHG -Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, an autonomous institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, have found through observations and detailed mapping of geological features that the Indus Suture Zone that was thought to be locked is tectonically active.

♦ Scientists have done the mapping of the remote regions of Ladakh region that forms the most hinterland part of the Himalaya.

♦ The geologists analysed that sedimentary beds are tilted & thrust broken, the rivers are associated with uplifted terraces, and the bedrock shows brittle deformation that occurred at much shallower depths.

♦ The combination of lab and field data suggested the region of the ISZ - Indus Suture Zone has been neo-tectonically active since the last 78000 -- 58000 years and a recent earthquake in 2010 of low magnitude 4.0 near the village of Upshi that occurred due to a thrust rupture.

♦ Himalayas were made up of north dipping thrusts like the MCT - Main Central Thrust, MBT - the Main Boundary Thrust, MFT - the Main Frontal Thrust.

♦ As per the established models, all of these thrusts except MFT are locked, and overall deformation in Himalaya is being accommodated only along with the MFT.

♦ The new findings, which suggest a more remote fault at the suture zone being neo-tectonically active, could call for a serious relook into the existing evolutionary models using new techniques and a larger geological database.


National Current Affairs October 4th Week 2020

Shri Arjun Munda to launch Two Centers of Excellence for Tribal Welfare:

Union Minister of Tribal Affairs,  Mr Shri Arjun Munda will launch two Centers of Excellence for Tribal Welfare in collaboration between Ministry of Tribal Affairs and Art of Living (AoL) on October 27, 2020, through video conference.

♦ The first initiative `Strengthening PRIs (Panchayati Raj Institutions)` will be launched in 5 districts covering 30 Gram Panchayats and 150 villages of Jharkhand.
♦ The initiative is done in creating awareness among elected representatives of PRI about various Tribal Acts and Rules and different welfare schemes available for these tribals and help the tribes getting access to these schemes.
♦ The initiative is designed to create the youth volunteers among the tribal youths by giving them personality development training, hence creating the tribal leaders who will work for their community.
♦ The 2nd is about training 10000 tribal farmers in Aurangabad, Maharashtra on sustainable natural farming based on Go-Adharith farming techniques. 
♦ Farmers will get help in getting the Organic certification & the marketing opportunities will be made available to them to make each of them Atmanirbhar Tribal Farmers.

Mr Shri Arjun Munda launches two Centers of Excellence for tribal welfare:

Union Minister of Tribal Affairs, Mr Shri Arjun Munda launched two Centers of Excellence for Tribal Welfare in collaboration between Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) and Art of Living (AoL) through video conference on October 27, 2020.

♦It is a praiseworthy initiative of Art of Living to launch two Centres of Excellence in partnership with MoTA. 
♦The government is responsible to the welfare of tribal people of our country. A large amount of funds to the tune of more than Rs. 2 lakh crores is allocated exclusively for tribal development across the country.
♦Strengthening of tribal Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) will also help to educate them about their constitutional rights. This will empower the PRIs in matters relating to decision making and development of their community.
♦The Ministry is working in collaboration with many NGOs and social organizations who are also doing a commendable job in this field. Art of Living has a vast network of volunteers who will make this program successful.
♦The 1st initiative `Strengthening PRIs` will be launched in 5 districts covering 30 Gram Panchayats and 150 villages of Jharkhand to create awareness among elected representatives of PRI about various Tribal Acts & Rules and different welfare schemes available for these tribals & help them getting access to these schemes.  
♦This model is designed to create the youth volunteers, giving them personality development training, and thereby creating the tribal leaders who will work for their community in spreading this awareness.
♦The 2nd is about training 10000 tribal farmers in Aurangabad District on sustainable natural farming based on Go-Adharith farming techniques.

Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal inaugurated the DST-IIEST Solar PV Hub virtually:

DST-IIEST Solar PV Hub, has been established at Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology(IIEST), Shibpur through a generous Research and Development by Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt of India, under the aegis of Centre of Excellence for Green Energy and Sensor System at IIEST, Shibpur. 
♦ To encourage and support the research by IIESTin the field of Solar Energy and Solar Cells, the DST has to create a central Hub with the name of “DST-IIEST Solar PV Hub”.
♦ “DST-IIEST Solar PV Hub” has world-class research facilities and will act as the central node for research and developments.
♦ Dissemination of knowledge in the field of solar energy, solar photovoltaics, including fabrication, characterization and testing of solar cells, solar PV Modules and also Solar PV systems, for the entire Eastern and North-Eastern region of India.
♦ This Hub will help in aligning the national as well as local industries, research institutes, and start-ups with the “Make in India Mission” towards a smooth transition from fossil fuel energy to solar energy scenario.
♦ A number of industries and research organizations in Eastern and North-Eastern regions are engaged in solar energy activities so they are greatly benefitted from this Research Unit. 
♦ Direct interactions with this DST-IIEST Solar Hub will enable the transfer of indigenous know-how and training for the fabrication, characterization and testing of solar cells and solar PV modules and systems as no such facility is available elsewhere in this region.
♦ The students and research fellows of higher education institutes of West Bengal and the entire Eastern and Northeastern Region will get hands-on experience in this Solar Hub.
♦ Well designed training programs offered by the Hub will also be an impetus to the Skill India Mission of the Government of India. 
♦ These training modules will be arranged to generate and strengthen the knowledge in the field of solar energy and solar photovoltaics so that in future they can contribute to indigenous development and usage of solar energy in India.
Health Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan digitally inaugurates Radio diagnosis Facilities:
Health Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan today digitally inaugurated the Radio diagnosis Facilities at All India Institute of Medical Sciences(AIIMS), Bathinda.
♦He also inaugurated the MBBS Student Hostel.
♦The setting up of new AIIMS at Bathinda will not only transform health education and training but will also address the shortfall of health care professionals in the region.
♦The new AIIMS will serve the dual purpose of providing super speciality health care to the population and also help to create a large pool of doctors and other health workers in this region.
♦The number of AIIMS has increased from 6 to 22, while another 75 existing institutions are planned for upgradation to provide quality tertiary healthcare services.
Indian Railways launches OPERATION MERI SAHELI:
Indian Railways has launched on operation “Meri Saheli” for focused action on the security of women across all zones to provide safety & security to lady passengers travelling by trains for their entire journey from starting station to destination station.
♦ An initiative of Railways Protection Force (RPF), the strategy of the entails interaction with women passengers those are travelling alone by a team of young woman RPF personnel at the originating station.
♦ These passengers will then be briefed about all precautions to be taken during the journey and be told to dial 182 in case they face or see any problem in the coach.
♦ The RPF team collects the seat numbers of the ladies and conveys them to stoppages en-route. The platform duty RPF personnel at the stopping stations en-route keep unobtrusive watch over the concerned coaches and berths and if the need arises, interact with the lady passengers.
♦ RPF escort onboard also covers all the coaches/identified berths during its duty period. RPF teams at the destination collect the feedback from the identified women passengers. The input is then analyzed and corrective action, if any, is taken.
♦ The “Meri Saheli" initiative was started as a pilot project in South Eastern Railway in September 2020. After getting encouraging response from female passengers, it was extended to all zones from October 17.

Science & Technology Current Affairs October 4th Week 2020

AIM Launches India Australia Circular Economy Hackathon (I-ACE):

AIM (Atal Innovation Mission), in association with Australia`s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), is organizing a two-day hackathon on the circular economy, ‘India–Australia Circular Economy Hackathon (I-ACE)’, on 7 and 8 December.
♦ Innovation in packaging reducing packaging waste
♦ Innovation in food supply chains avoiding waste
♦ Creating opportunities for plastic waste reduction
♦ Recycling critical energy metals and e-waste
♦ The idea of the hackathon (I-ACE) was conceived during a virtual summit on 4 June, between the Indian and Australian prime ministers, exploring innovative ways to boost the circular economy in India & Australia.
♦ Hackathon will focus on identification and development of innovative technology solutions by bright-minded students, startups and MSMEs of both nations.
♦ Shortlisted startups/MSMEs and students will be called for the hackathon (I - ACE), where two winners per theme from each country will be announced at an award ceremony on 11 December. 
♦ India and Australia have had a strong and productive bilateral partnership since a decade and our collaborations across a broad range of areas have yielded significant results. Australia and India can align research and developmental efforts to achieve more at a challenging time in the history of mankind.
♦ The winning startup/MSME and Indian student teams will be awarded with a prize of Rs 5 lakh and Rs 2 lakh, respectively, coupled with post-hackathon product development opportunities. The winning student of Australia will be awarded a prize of AUD$3500 and the winning Australian SMEs/startup team a prize of AUD$9500.

Indian genomes contributes a compendium of genetic variants - contemporary Indian population:

Analysis from the extensive computation analysis of the 1029 sequenced genomes from India carried out by CSIR constituent labs, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), Delhi and CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad were published in the scientific journal, Nucleic Acid Research.
♦ The observation led to the identification of 55,898,122 single-nucleotide variants in the India genome dataset.
♦ Comparisons with the world genome datasets revealed that 18,016,257 (32.23%) variants were unique and found only in the samples from India.
♦ India is the 2nd largest country in terms of population density with more than 1.3 billion individuals. In spite of having this rich genetic diversity, India has been under-represented in global genome studies.
♦ CSIR started the IndiGen Program in April 2019. Under this, the whole genome sequencing of 1029 self-declared healthy Indians drawn from across the country has been completed.
♦ The current IndiGenomes data provides a compendium of genetic variants representing the contemporary Indian population with an objective to classify variants involved in Mendelian disorders & improve precision medicine outcomes. 
♦ The resource is accessible to the researchers and clinicians in India and abroad. There have been over 200,000 pageviews on the IndiGenomes web page from users spanning 27 countries. 

ISRO to launch earth observation satellite EOS-01 on 7 November:

This is the first launch by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) since the COVID-19 induced lockdown came into force in March.
♦India would launch its latest earth observation satellite EOS-01 and nine international customer spacecraft onboard its Polar rocket PSLV-C49 from the spaceport of Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh on November 7.
♦ISRO Chairman K Sivan had said in June that ten space missions being prepared for launch this year have been `disturbed` due to the lockdown.
♦EOS-01 is intended for applications in agriculture, forestry&disaster management support.
♦The launch is tentatively scheduled at 3.02 pm on November 7 subject to weather conditions from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota.
♦The customer satellites are being launched under a commercial agreement with NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), Department of Space.
♦This will be the 51st mission of ISRO`s workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.
♦Given the strict COVID-19 pandemic norms in place at the launch centre, a gathering of media personnel there was not planned, and the viewing gallery will be closed.
♦However, the live telecast of the launch will be available on the ISRO website, Youtube, Facebook and Twitter channel.
♦In June, Sivan highlighted that ISRO would assess the impact of the lockdown on its missions.
♦Because of this (pandemic), everything got disturbed. We have to assess after the COVID-19 issue is resolved.

National Current Affairs October 3rd Week 2020

NFL along with CCI organizes training programme for farmers in Rajasthan:

National Fertilizers Limited (NFL) partnering with Cotton Corporation of India (CCI) organized a one day farmer`s training programme in Agriculture Research Centre, Shri Ganganagar, Rajasthan on October 20, 2020.
♦ A total of 75 progressive farmers from the districts of Sriganganagar, Bikaner and Hanumangarh took part in this programme. The farmers were trained in the programmed agricultural scientists on the latest technologies.
♦ Scientists have provided solutions to the various problems faced by farmers growing cotton. CCI and NFL officials advised them to use the new machinery to boost production and enhance crop quality.
♦ NFL distributed 75 cotton plucking machines free of cost to the participating farmers and also emphasized that the moisture in the cotton crop should be kept to a minimum to take good prices from the market.
♦ Based on soil test results, farmers were encouraged to use fertilisers in their crops and also stressed the balance of different fertilisers in different crops grown by farmers in order to minimise fertiliser expenditure and raise farmers incomes.
National Fertilizers Limited (NFL):
NFL is a Public Sector Unit (PSU) under the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers. NFL is a state-owned producer of chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers & industrial chemicals. NFL, incorporated in 1974, is India`s largest Central Public Sector Enterprise in Fertilizer Sector with a turnover of over Rs 75 billion.

International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA) prescribes regulatory framework for REITs and InvITs in IFSC:

The IFSCA - International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA), to develop the financial products and services in the Gujarat International Finance Tec-City International Financial Services Centre (GIFT IFSC) has prescribed the regulatory framework for Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) & Infrastructure Investment Trusts (InvITs) in IFSC.
♦ IFSCA has permitted global participants that are REITs & InvITs incorporated in FATF compliant jurisdictions to list on the stock exchanges in GIFT IFSC. InvITs have been allowed to raise funds through private placements also. 
♦ The REITs & InvITs registered in IFSC have been permitted to invest in real estate assets and infrastructure projects, respectively in IFSC. 
♦ The REITs and InvITs that are listed in any of the permissible jurisdictions other than IFSC (currently USA, Japan, South Korea, United Kingdom excluding British Overseas Territories, France, Germany, Canada and India) or India have been permitted to list and trade on the recognised stock exchanges in IFSC, subject to compliance with their respective laws of the home jurisdiction.
♦ The listing of REITs and InvITs in IFSC shall be following the requirements of the stock exchanges in IFSC.
♦ The entities in IFSC can participate and benefit from the growth of real estate and infrastructure sector in international jurisdictions.

Sports Current Affairs October 3rd Week 2020

Nozomi Okuhara clinches Women`s Singles title at Denmark Open:

Former Japanese World Champion Nozomi Okuhara clinched the Denmark Open title in Badminton, defeating three-time women`s singles world champion Carolina Marin.
♦ The Japanese star took 56 minutes to get the better of the Olympic gold medallist Spaniard in two games 21-19, 21-17, at Odense. 
♦ With reigning world champion PV Sindhu of India opting to sit out the event, two of her biggest rivals made it through to the final.
♦ In the men`s singles final, world number seven Anders Antonsen of Denmark defeated his compatriot Rasmus Gemke by 18-21, 21-19, 21-12. 
♦ In the mixed doubles, fourth seeds Mark Lamsfuss and Isabel Herttrich became the first German mixed doubles players to win a Super Series event after defeating Chris and Gabby Adcock of England in the final 18-21, 21-11, 21-14.
♦ In an all-Japan women`s doubles final, top seeds Yuki Fukushima and Sayaka Hirota downed second seeds Mayu Matsumoto and Wakana Nagahara 21-10, 16-21, 21-18.
♦ Marcus Ellis and Chris Langridge of England defeated Russian pair Valdimir Ivanov and Ivan Sozonov 20-22, 21-17, 21-18, becoming the first England pair to clinch the title of men`s doubles in the Denmark Open for 45 years.

Important Days Current Affairs October 3rd Week 2020

World Statistics Day is observed on October 20, 2020:

The Static Division of the United Nations Department of Economic Affairs is the global campaign coordinator, identifying key global messages and providing countries and other stakeholders with access to outreach services.
♦ The 3rd World Statistics Day will be celebrated around the globe on 20 October 2020.
♦ The theme of 2020–“Connecting the world with data we can trust”
♦ This theme reflects the significance, in national statistical structures, of trust, authoritative data, creativity and the public good.
♦ The celebration of World Statistics Day 2020 is a global collaborative endeavour, organized under the guidance of the United Nations Statistical Commission.
♦ The Statistics Division of the Department of Economic Affairs of the United Nations is the global organiser of the initiative, identifying key global messages and making accessible through this website outreach services to countries and other partners.
♦ National statistical offices serve as national coordinators, translating advertising materials into national languages, and coordinating national and sub-national level activities and outreach initiatives.
♦ In order to amplify campaigns at global and regional levels and to coordinate their own activities, international organisations play a key role.

Police Commemoration Day is observed on October 21:

The Day of Police Commemoration is held on 21 October 2020. To honour the dedication and supreme sacrifice of police personnel for the country, the day is observed on October 21 every year.
It was on this day in 1959 when Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) led a saga of bravery and sacrifice in the inaccessible, inhospitable terrain of Hot Springs in Ladakh. A patrol party of twenty personnel of CRPF and Intelligence Bureau had gone to search for a missing reconnaissance party when the Chinese Army ambushed it. Despite the sudden attack and disadvantageous tactical position, they fought valiantly against the Chinese army personnel who were in large numbers and heavily armed. In this battle, ten CRPF men were martyred in defence of the country.
♦ PM Narendra Modi today paid tributes to all the police personnel martyred in the line of duty on Police Commemoration Day.
♦ Police Commemoration Day is to express gratitude to the police personnel and their families all across India. 
♦ Without hesitation, the police workers always send their best, from upholding law and order to solving horrific crimes, from emergency relief assistance to battling COVID-19.
♦ In the last one year, 264 personnel of State Police Forces as well as those of CAPFs, lost their lives in the line of duty.
♦ As Covid warriors, police and CAPF workers played a large and frontline role. As a result, in the line of service, 343 police and CAPF staff fell victim to Covid 19 thus contributing to the management of Covid.

International Current Affairs October 3rd Week 2020

Indian Navy Sri Lanka Navy Maritime Exercise SLINEX-20 off Trincomalee:

From 19 to 21 October 2020, the 8th edition of the annual Indian Navy (IN)-Sri Lanka Navy (SLN) SLINEX-20 is planned off Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. The SLINEX-20 exercise is a maritime one. The previous edition of SLINEX off Visakhapatnam was conducted by the Navies in September 2019.
♦ SLN Ships Sayura (Offshore Patrol Vessel) and Gajabahu (Training Ship), headed by Rear Admiral Bandara Jayathilaka, Flag Officer Commanding Naval Fleet, Sri Lankan Navy, will represent the Sri Lankan Navy.
♦ Under the command of Rear Admiral Sanjay Vatsayan, Flag Officer Commanding Eastern Fleet, Indian Navy, the Indian Navy will reflect the indigenously designed ASW corvettes `Kamorta` and `Kiltan`.
♦ The Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) and Chetak helicopter of the Indian Navy embarked on IN vessels and Dornier Maritime Patrol Aircraft will also participate in the exercise.
♦ The objective of SLINEX-20 is to enhance interoperability, to improve mutual understanding and to exchange best practises and procedures between the two navies for multi-faceted maritime operations.
♦ This exercise will show the capabilities of our indigenously constructed aircraft and naval ships.
♦ Surface and anti-air activities such as arms shooting, seamanship improvements, manoeuvres and cross-deck flying operations are designed to further strengthen the high degree of inter-operability between navies that has already been developed.
♦ In recent years, cooperation between the two navies has also increased significantly, following India`s Neighbourhood First `policy and Hon`ble PM`s Protection and Development for All in the Region (SAGAR) vision.

Fifth Joint Working Group (JWG) on Coal between India & Indonesia on November 5, 2020:

India will host 5th Joint Working Group (JWG) on Coal between India and Indonesia
♦ The 5th JWG on Coal between India&Indonesia scheduled on November 5, 2020  
♦ The 1-day meeting will be held through Video conference from New Delhi due to travel restrictions on the pandemic.
♦ This will be co-chaired by Shri Vinod Kumar Tiwari from the Indian side, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Coal, Government of India and by Dr Ir. Ridwan Djamaluddin, Director General of Mineral and Coal Ministry of Energy.
♦ Mineral Resources, Republic of Indonesia, from the Indonesian side.
♦ Joint Working Group (JWG) meeting will deliberate on the Indian Coal Policy Reforms – recent updates; Coking Coal Exploration and Commercial Coal Mining in India; Research and Development of CCT in India and Potential.
♦ Indonesia – India Business Cooperation on Coal Post Covid-19
♦ A back-2-back session will bring together the industries from both the sides to discuss the issues impacting business opportunities in the backdrop of a regulatory framework.  
♦ This will also explore more areas of business opportunities in the Coal sector.
♦ The deliberations will guide the Coal business between the two countries.

Defence Current Affairs October 3rd Week 2020

BRAHMOS missile test-fired from destroyer INS Chennai in the Arabian Sea:

On October 18, 2020, the supersonic cruise missile BRAHMOS was successfully tested by the indigenous stealth destroyer INS Chennai of the Indian Navy, hitting a target in the Arabian Sea. With its full accuracy, the missile hits the target.
♦ After conducting high-level and unnecessarily complicated manoeuvres, the BRAHMOS missile reached the target successfully with pin-point precision.
♦ Defence Minister Rajnath Singh welcomed the successful launch of the missile by the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) and the Indian Navy.
♦ BRAHMOS is a prime strike weapon that will ensure the invincibility of the warship by attacking long-range naval surface targets, thereby making the destroyer another deadly Indian Navy platform.
♦ India and Russia have jointly designed , built and manufactured the supersonic cruise missile BRAHMOS.
Brahmos is named by the names of the rivers Brahmaputra & Moskva. The missile is a two-stage (solid propellant engine in the first stage and liquid ramjet in second) air to surface missile. Brahmos is multiplatform that is it can be launched from land, air, and sea and multi capability missile with pin-point accuracy that works in both daytime and night time, amid the weather conditions. It works on the "Fire and Forgets" principle means it does not need further guidance after its launch. This missile is one of the fastest cruise missiles currently operationally deployed with the speed of Mach 2.8, which is 3 times more than the speed of sound.

A hybrid model of smart fence tested along the LoC:

In order to check infiltration, the Army has greatly enhanced its electronic surveillance along the Line of Control ( LoC) and work is underway on turning the existing border fence into a smart fence integrated with several sensors.
♦ Tough the cost of converting the entire fence over a 700 km stretch into a smart one will be too high; a hybrid model is now accepted.
♦ LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensors, infrared sensors and cameras, among others, will be built into the barrier. Approximately 700 m from the LoC, the current fence is known as the Anti-Infiltration Obstacle System (AIOS).
♦ The double row fence was constructed between 2003 and 2005 with concertina wire.
♦ With its high rate of degradation every year due to snow, the Army came up with a proposal to install a smart fence with various sensors integrated into it and a pilot project was subsequently taken up.
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR):
By illuminating the target with laser light and measuring the reflection using a sensor, LIDAR is a technology for measuring distances (ranging). To make digital 3-D representations of the target, variations in laser return times & wavelengths can then be used. It has applications that are terrestrial, airborne and mobile. Lidar is usually used to make high-resolution maps, with applications in surveying, geodesy, geomatics, archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry, atmospheric physics, laser guidance, airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM), and laser altimetry. Lidar uses ultraviolet, visible, or near-infrared light to image objects. It can be used to target a wide range of materials, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds and even single molecules.

Science & Technology Current Affairs October 3rd Week 2020

CSIR-CMERI develops Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility:

Under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research ( CSIR), the Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI) has created a Municipal Solid Waste ( MSW) Processing Facility that has helped to achieve decentralised solid waste decentralisation.


♦ CSIR-CMERI`s vital focus is to unburden traditional households by advanced segregation strategies from the segregation obligations. There is a minimum emission element in the bio-digestion process adopted.

♦ The MSW facility has been equipped with unique capabilities to make it easy to deal with a variety of waste, including masks, sanitary napkins, diapers, etc.

♦ The MSW facility has been able to help split the COVID chain by UV-C lights and hot-air convection techniques with unique disinfection capabilities.

♦ The equipment can be worked with optimum energy sufficiency by adding solar energy technology which can also feed the surplus Energy Supply onto a Mini-Grid.

♦ The decentralised waste management technology developed by CSIR-CMERI will lead to a dramatic reduction in transport logistics expenditure and help to reduce CO2 emissions by minimising the use of fossil fuels.

♦ The Scientifically Decentralized Waste Collection Hubs will help increase outreach to different locations and will also increase the development capacity for the region `s residents.

1st ever SCO Startup Forum to be launched on 27th October, boost for `Startup India:

The 1st ever Shanghai Cooperation Organisation(SCO) startup forum will be launched on  27th October 2020,ahead of the SCO trade Ministers meeting on 28th October 2020.


The 1st ever SCO Startup Forum will be launched on October 27 2020. 

The forum will lay the groundwork for multilateral cooperation and the willingness of SCO Member States to jointly establish and refine their start-up ecosystems.

Innovation and Startups will be the key focus area of SCO

By introducing multiple entrepreneurial activities such as start-up showcases through a dedicated virtual platform, mobilising start-up resources, sharing of best practises, procurement of social technologies, multilateral incubator programmes and information exchange workshops, etc., the Forum will recognise the areas of cooperation

It will help us  to learn the cultural & economic features in the Member States of SCO 

In the run up to the establishment of Forum, India organized a virtual SCO preparatory Seminar and a workshop .

Around 40 Indian Missions planned in to further augment Startup India efforts.

With over 35,000 start-ups, India is currently the third largest start-up ecosystem in the world, nearly 25 percent of which are core technology start-ups operating in different fields, including robotics, AI, IoT, cloud computing , digital health, financial and educational technology.

The `Startup India` has introduced 10 bilateral bridges and supported several start-ups focused on technology to extend their companies to worldwide markets.


India successfully test-fired SANT Missile on October 19, 2020:

India has test-fired Stand-off Anti-tank (SANT) missile successfully from a roof-top launcher at the Integrated Test Range (ITR) off Odisha Coast on October 19, 2020. The Missile is developed by the Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the Indian Air Force ( IAF) and it has both Lock-on After Launch and Lock-on Before Launch facility.
SANT missile: 
♦ Stand-off Anti-tank (SANT) missile is a surface-to-air missile.
♦ SANT missile is a developed version of the Helicopter Launched Nag (HeliNa) missile, instrumented with an advanced node-mounted seeker.
♦ Stand-off Anti-tank (SANT) missile has a range of 12 Kilometers.
♦ SANT missile becomes the twelfth missile test by India in last 45 days.
♦ SANT missile tested on the following day of the BrahMos missile test.
♦ Shaurya, Prithvi-II, BrahMos, Anti-Tank Guided Missile, Supersonic Missile Aided Release of Torpedo, Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle, Latest Generation Anti-Radiation Missile, and Nirbhay subsonic cruise missile are the other missiles tested over the last 45 days.

International Current Affairs October 2nd Week 2020

Pakistan re-elected to UN Human Rights Council:

Facing opposition from advocacy groups over their awful human rights records, Pakistan has been re-elected to the UNHRC. The Human Rights Council of the United Nations (UNHRC) is an agency of the United Nations whose purpose is to promote and protect human rights all over the world.
♦ Pakistan received the highest number of votes among the 5 candidates from the Asia-Pacific region.
♦ Pakistan won 169 votes in a secret ballot, Uzbekistan 164, Nepal 150, China 139 and Saudi Arabia lost the race with just 90 votes in a 193-member UN General Assembly vote.
♦ Since January 1 , 2018, Pakistan has been part of the UNHRC. Pakistan will continue as a member for another three-year term starting on January 1, 2021, with this re-election.
♦ This is the 5th time that Pakistan has been elected to the UNHRC
♦ Pakistan is strongly committed to fostering and preserving human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, as well as to upholding them effectively.
♦ Russia and Cuba, running unopposed, also won the seats.

Schemes Current Affairs October 2nd Week 2020

Dr. Harsh Vardhan launches second phase of Thalassemia Bal Sewa Yojna:

The second phase of `Thalassemia Bal Sewa Yojna` was initiated by Union Health Minister Dr. Harsh Vardhan on 14 October 2020. The second phase of Thalassemia Bal Sewa Yojna, virtually from Nirman Bhawan, was introduced for the underprivileged Thalassemic patients.
The Program aims to provide patients who have a matched family donor with a one-time cure opportunity for haemoglobinopathies such as Thalassaemia and Sickle Cell Disease.
♦ Thalassemia Bal Sewa Yojna” was launched in 2017 and it is funded by Coal India Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
♦ This is the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) programme that seeks to provide haemoglobinopathies such as Thalassaemia and Sickle Cell Disease with a one-time cure opportunity.
♦ In India every year nearly 10-12,000 children are born with thalassemia major.
♦ The eligibility for the scheme - Patients whose yearly family income is Rs. 5 lakhs and or less .
♦ Dr. Harsh Vardhan congratulated all the doctors who, without medical fees, had successfully performed the transplantation.
♦ As of this year, the programme has been extended to include a total of 200 such patients with Aplastic Anaemia. Via consultation using the Ayushman Bharat- Health & Wellness Centres network, such cases can be avoided.

Important Days Current Affairs October 2nd Week 2020

World Students Day is observed on 15 October:

On October 15, marking the birth anniversary of Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, World Students` Day is celebrated. To honour the students for their hard work and dedication, the day was first celebrated in 2010.
Learning for individuals, the environment, growth and peace "is the theme of Environment Students Day 2020." The aim of this theme is to highlight the centrality of development ambitions and humanitarian priorities for our society. For their hard work , commitment, and determination, the day is celebrated to honour students from around the globe.
Key facts about the day:
♦ Every year the “World students day” is celebrated across the globe.
♦ It was first celebrated in 2010 in the UN (United Nations) on Dr APJ Abdul Kalam’s birthday when he was 79 years old.
♦ The day is celebrated to honour the most loved President of India who was a scientist, a teacher, an author among many other roles that he played.
♦ Dr Kalam was born on October 15, 1931, in Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu, and studied physics and aerospace engineering. 
♦ As a scientist and science administrator, he spent the next four decades, primarily at the DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation) and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation).
Teaching was his dream work and that is how he wanted the world to remember him. His death also occurred as he did what he cherished the most. Dr. Kalam gave the students of IIM (Indian Institute of Management) Shillong a lecture when he fell down the stage suffering from a stroke and died on July 27, 2015. 
♦ Dr. Kalam was the author of three books, including Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan, Bharat Ratna, Veer Savarkar Award, Ramanujan Award, and several awards.
For his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology, he was also named the `Missile Man of India`. After his death, several educational institutes, scientific institutions, and some locations were named.

International Day of Rural Women is observed on 15 October:

International Rural Women`s Day is celebrated annually by the United Nations on October 15. International Rural Women`s Day is celebrated across the globe every year on October 15.
In order to inspire the female population around the globe, the day is celebrated. The day emphasises that rural girls and women will help the world`s potential sustainability.
The 2020 theme is `Building the resilience of rural women in the aftermath of COVID-19` or `Building back stronger` by improving the safe livelihoods and well-being of rural women.
The resolution to mark the International Day of Rural Women was first adopted in 2007 and began to be observed in 2008. Different programmes for the empowerment of rural women have been introduced by the Indian government, including the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala programme (providing LPG connectivity in rural areas), Anandadhara Yojana, a programme for poverty alleviation by self-help groups.

Defence Current Affairs October 2nd Week 2020

Exercise Suraksha Kavach, a Joint Anti Terrorist Exercise By Indian Army and Police was held:
The Indian Army`s Agnibaaz Division (41 Artillery Division) has organised Exercise Suraksha Kavach, a joint exercise for both the Lullanagar Pune Maharashtra Police and the Indian Army. For both the Indian Army and the Police, the exercise was an opportunity to collaborate, organise, co-opt and streamline their exercises and procedures.
Exercise Suraksha Kavach:
♦The purpose of the Suraksha Kavach exercise is to harmonise the procedures of both the Indian Army and the Police to enable anti-terrorist Quick Reaction Teams (QRTs) in Pune, Maharashtra to counter any terrorist acts.
♦ The exercise also included the involvement of the Army and Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) Fast Reaction Teams, Dog Squads and Bomb Disposal Teams, and the Maharashtra Police Quick Reaction Team.
♦ During the exercise, a simulated scenario was formed regarding the involvement of terrorists in family accommodation at Lullanagar, based on which the outer cordon was initially created by Rapid Reaction Teams of the Army.
♦ Traffic management was carried out jointly by the Maharashtra traffic police and the Military Police Army Corps on the nearby roads. 
♦ The joint operation was carried out to neutralise terrorists by the Army`s Counter-Terrorism Task Force (CTTF) and the Maharashtra Police Rapid Reaction Unit.
♦ Space interference exercise, the search of the space by Dog squads for any unidentified items / explosives and their neutralisation / diffusion by Bomb Disposal Units were involved.

♦ The exercise took into account all COVID-19 safety requirements, and the strength of the participating troops was reduced accordingly.


Sports Current Affairs October 2nd Week 2020

Rafael Nadal beats Novak Djokovic to win 13th French Open, ties with Federer at 20 Grand Slams:

Rafael Nadal has beaten Novak Djokovic 6-0, 6-2, 7-5 to win the title of the 13th French Open in tennis. With this victory on October 11, 2020, Nadal is now equal to Roger Federer’s all-time record of winning 20 Grand Slams titles.

The defeat in French Open for world number one Novak Djokovic has ended his hopes of winning the 18th Slam and also of becoming the first man since Rod Laver to win all the four majors twice in 1969.

Rafale Nadal winning 20 Grand Slams:

  • World Number two, Rafael Nadal improved to 100-2 at the French Open, which includes a combined 26-0 in semifinals and finals and won his fourth consecutive title in Paris.
  • Rafael Nadal claimed his 100th match win at the 13th French Open at Roland Garros against just 2 defeats since his debut in 2005.
  • The 34-years old left-handed tennis player from Spain previously had put together streaks of four French Open Championships from 2005-2008. Then again five in a row from 2010-2014.
  • The winnings went alongside his four trophies at the U.S. Open, one at the Australian Open and two at the Wimbledon.

National Current Affairs October 2nd Week 2020

Delhi Cabinet approves Tree Transplantation Policy:

The Delhi Cabinet approved the `Tree Transplantation Policy` for the preservation of trees in the Capital. The Cabinet also approved the installation of the second smog tower in the world at Connaught Place within ten months. The project seeks to prevent large-scale felling for development projects.


♦ Under the policy, a minimum of 80% of trees affected by a development or construction project will be transplanted. Over 80% of the transplanted trees must survive after transplantation.

♦ Also, 10 saplings will be planted in addition to the whole tree being dug up with the root intact and scientifically transplanted at another location instead of being felled.

♦ Delhi state government is to form a panel of agencies for tree transplantation and the government departments concerned will contact these agencies.

♦ Under this initiative, various measures including Electric Vehicle (EV), tree transplantation, and preventing stubble burning will be taken. 


♦ The main objective of the key components of this campaign was the tree transplantation policy.

Delhi government exempts battery-operated vehicles from road tax, step towards ‘pollution-free Delhi’:

The Delhi Transport Minister, Kailash Gahlot has informed that the Delhi Government has decided to exempt road tax on the battery-operated vehicles under its new Electric Vehicle (EV) Policy.
In the notification issued on October 10, 2020, the Transport Department stated that the Lieutenant Governor of Delhi has decided to exempt the tax which was levied upon all the battery-operated vehicles with an immediate effect.
The Delhi Transport Minister while sharing the information on Twitter added that with the right incentives and supporting infrastructure, the government has been determined to ensure Delhi leads the country in rapid transition to the Electric Vehicles.
Delhi Electric Vehicle Policy 2020:
Delhi Chief Minister, Arvind Kejriwal had announced the Delhi Electric Vehicle Policy, 2020 with an aim to increase the adoption of electric vehicles in the city by incentivizing the purchase. The government policy also aims to register more than 5 lakh electric vehicles in Delhi by 2024.
In August 2020, Delhi CM had announced that the state government has notified the policy. On the financial front, the government will be providing financial assistance to those who will be buying electric vehicles under the policy.
The assistance of Rs. 1.5 lakh will be given on the purchase of cars, Rs. 30,000 will be given for the purchase of 2-wheelers and Rs. 30,000 for e-rickshaws and auto-rickshaws.

International Current Affairs October 1st Week 2020

USA Aircraft Refuelling at A&N Islands:

Recently, a USA Navy P-8A long range Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA) landed at Port Blair in the Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands for refuelling under the bilateral logistics support agreement.

This is the first time the USA got access to A&N under the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA).
Key Points LEMOA:
  • It allows both countries to have access to each other’s designated military facilities for refueling and replenishment.
  • Signed by India in 2016.
  • Other foundational military communication agreements with the USA:
  • General Security of Military Information Agreement:
  • GSOMIA allows militaries to share the intelligence gathered by them.
  • Signed by India in 2002.
  • An extension to the GSOMIA, the Industrial Security Annex (ISA), was signed at the 2+2 dialogue in 2019.
  • ISA provides a framework for exchange and protection of classified military information between the USA and Indian defence industries.
  • Communications and Information Security Memorandum of Agreement:
  • Valid for 10 years, COMCASA aims to provide a legal framework for the transfer of highly sensitive communication security equipment from the USA to India that will streamline and facilitate interoperability between their armed forces.
  • Signed by India in 2018.

Defence Current Affairs October 1st Week 2020

India, Bangladesh hold joint naval exercise Bongosagar:

The second edition of the bilateral naval exercise "Bongosagar", between India and Bangladesh was held on 3 October 2020 in Northern Bay of Bengal. Both navies participated in seamanship evolutions, surface warfare drills, and helicopter operations. Bongosagar aims to develop interoperability and joint operational skills through the conduct of maritime exercises and operations.


♦ Bangladesh Navy ships Abu Bakr, Prottoy, helo & MPA and Indian Navy ships Kiltan, Khukri participaated in the exercise. 

♦ They undertook manoeuvres, surface drills, helo operations & seamanship evolutions.

♦ Also, Maritime Patrol Aircraft from both navies and integral helicopters participated in the exercise.

♦ The first edition of the `Exercise Bongosagar` was held in 2019.

♦ The third edition of India Bangladesh Coordinated Patrol (CORPAT) on 4-5 October. ♦ During the CORPAT exercise, both navies will undertake joint patrolling along the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL). 

♦ Exercise Bongosagar and IN-BN CORPAT reflects the priority Indian Navy accords to Bangladesh Navy as part of  SAGAR (Security And Growth for All in the Region).

DRDO successfully tested SMART Missile:
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully flight tested the Supersonic Missile Assisted Release of Torpedo (SMART) from Wheeler Island off the coast of Odisha on 5th October 2020. 
♦ SMART missile is the assisted release of lightweight Anti-Submarine Torpedo System for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations for far beyond torpedo range. 
♦ This test demonstration are significant in establishing ASW capabilities.
♦ Parameters including missile flight upto the range and altitude, the release of Torpedo, separation of the nose cone, and deployment of Velocity Reduction Mechanism (VRM) were tested successfully.  

Science & Technology Current Affairs October 1st Week 2020

China to launch worlds first mining robot into space:

Origin Space, a space start-up in China, has announced that it is to send out the world`s first mining robot into space. The robot has been designed in a way to identify and extract resources. 
♦ The robot is termed an Asteroid Mining robot.
♦ The robot will be launched into space by a Chinese Long March series rocket.
♦ The mission aims to assess the capabilities of the asteroid mining robot and to find out how well it can identify and extract valuable resources through asteroid mining.
♦ The mission will demonstrate and verify multiple functions like simulated small celestial body capture, spacecraft orbital manoeuvre, intelligent spacecraft identification and control.

DRDO successfully test-fired Shaurya missile:

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has successfully test-fired `Shaurya missile`, a new version of nuclear-capable off the coast of Odisha on 3 October 2020.
♦ Shaurya missile of the nuclear-capable missile will be inducted in the strategic forces and is being claimed to complement the existing missiles in the same class. 
♦ This missile is lighter and easier to operate as compared to the existing ones.
♦ In its last phase, when the missile moves close to its target, it moves at hypersonic speeds.

Awards Current Affairs October 1st Week 2020

Young researchers awarded with 2020 CDRI Award:

The CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow awarded young researchers with CDRI Award for their outstanding contribution in drug discovery and development. CDRI Award 2020 was conferred to Dr Bushra Ateeq, Dr Surajit Ghosh and Dr Ravi Manjithaya. 
♦ Dr.Bushra Ateeq was awarded for new therapeutic avenues for prostate cancer. Her findings provide an explanation for the clinical-outcomes after Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT), possibly due to SPINK1 upregulation. It offers CK1 inhibition as a strategy for Prostate Cancer adjuvant therapies.
♦ Dr.Surajit Ghosh was awarded for her contribution in Discovery of Nuclear Localizing Cell Penetrating Peptide (CPP) for an anticancer drug. The study opens up new avenues towards the development of next-generation cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) and major groove specific anticancer drugs.
♦ Dr.Ravi Manjithaya was awarded for his outstanding work on Chemical genetics-based identification of autophagy-modulating small molecules. It provides mechanistic insights and therapeutic potential. He has identified and characterized several autophagy-modulating small molecules. His research reveals potential therapeutic avenues towards diseases that currently have no cure.
CDRI Award 2020:
CDRI Award was instituted in the year 2004. The award is to promote scientific excellence in the country and to recognize outstanding contribution in the area of Drug Research and Development. CDRI awards are given every year to the Indian Nationals below 45 years of age. The person must carried out outstanding research work in the area having a direct bearing on Drug Research and Development. Two separate individual awards are presented in the area of Chemical Sciences and Life Sciences. CDRI Award carries a cash prize of Rs.20,000 and a citation.

Jal Shakti Minister presented 2020 Swachh Bharat Awards:

Union Jal Shakti Minister Gajendra Singh Shekhawat presented the Swachh Bharat Awards 2020 particularly under the drinking water and cleanliness categories. The awards were given to States, Districts, Blocks and Village Panchayats. GoI had earlier launched three missions namely Swachh Sundar Samudayik Shouchalaya, Samudayik Shouchalaya Abhiyan and Gandagi Mukth Bharat. 


♦ Under the Swachh Sundar Samudayik Shouchalaya category Gujarat was awarded the first position at state level whereas Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu got the Award for cleanliness at District Level. Chinnanur Village in Tamil Nadu bagged the top slot at Gram Panchayat level. Khachrod block in Ujjain district in Madhya Pradesh was awarded the first position. 

♦ Under the Samudayik Shouchalaya Abhiyan, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh topped as best performing states. Prayagraj and Bareilly won the award for being the best performing districts. 

♦ Under the Gandagi Mukth Bharat Mission, Haryana and Telangana were awarded the top slot.


♦ Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) has transformed rural India into a Jan Andolan for  achieving Open Defecation Free (ODF). The Phase II of the SBM (G) was launched early this year. It focuses on ODF sustainability and Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) which aims at comprehensive cleanliness in villages. 


Important Days Current Affairs October 1st Week 2020

World Teachers Day is observed on 5 October:

World Teachers` Day is observed on 5 October every year. The day aims to provide a great opportunity to appreciate and thank all the teachers of the world who have gone out of their way to make sure no one is left behind. World Teachers` Day 2020 assumes huge significance amid the Covid-19 pandemic. 


The theme for 2020 World Teachers` Day is "Teachers: Leading in crisis, reimagining the future." The theme focuses to celebrate the teaching profession worldwide, draw attention to the voices of teachers, and take stock of achievements. Teachers are at the heart of efforts to attain the global education target of leaving no one behind.



World Teachers` Day is observed annually on 5 October since 1994. The Day commemorates the anniversary of the adoption of the 1966 International Labour Organization (ILO)/ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers. The day is is co-convened in partnership with UNICEF, the International Labour Organization and Education International.

Gandhi Jayanti is observed on 2 October in India:

Gandhi Jayanti is observed on 2 October. Mahatma Gandhi is known as Father of the Nation. Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated across the country and it is one of the national holidays.
Mahatma Gandhi:
M.K. Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869. He was known for his non-violence protest during the British rule. He was a leading figure of freedom movements whether in India or South Africa. India got freedom from colonial rule with his efforts.
Major events in the freedom struggle:
♦ In 1906-07, Satyagraha in South Africa
♦ In 1910, Satyagraha against emigration and restriction in Natal
♦ In 1917, Champaran Satyagraha 
♦ In 1917-1918, Kheda Satyagraha
♦ In 1919, Khilafat Movement
♦ In 1920, Non-Cooperation Movement
♦ In 1930, Civil-Disobedience Movement
♦ In 1942, Quit India Movement 
The above major movements that were led by Mahatma Gandhi helped India in attaining freedom from the British rule. Gandhi was assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, on 30 January 1948.

National Current Affairs October 1st Week 2020

Dr Harsh Vardhan launched CSIR Technologies for rural development:

The Union Minister of Science & Technology, Earth Sciences and Health & Family Welfare, Dr Harsh Vardhan launched CSIR Technologies for rural development on the occasion of CSIR-NISTADS 40th Foundation Day. It was launched under a joint initiative of Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT-D), Unnat Bharat Abhiyan (UBA), and Vijnana Bharti (VIBHA). He also released CSIR-NISTADS (National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies) e-Compendium and e-Coffee Table Book, on the occasion.
♦ CSIR Technologies seeks to explore and reinvent innovative approaches for actions from different stakeholders.
♦ The programme aims to enable the outreach of CSIR rural technologies to society.
♦ The technologies released included:
Improved beehive for quality and hygienic extraction of honey, CSIR-IHBT, Palampur
Technology for manufacturing of Ginger paste, CSIR-CFTRI, Mysore
Dehumidified drier for food and Agri products, CSIR-NIIST, Thiruvananthapuram
Technology for agricultural waste (sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, and fruit peels) based biodegradable plates, cups and cutleries, CSIR-NIIST, Thiruvananthapuram
Unnat Bharat Abhiyan:
Unnat Bharat Abhiyan programme of the Ministry of Education. It was conceptualised and launched in IIT-Delhi. It aims to introduce transformational change in rural development processes by leveraging knowledge institutions to help build the architecture of an Inclusive India. Unnat Bharat Abhiyan constitutes of 45 Regional Coordinating Institutions (RCIs) and 2,614 Participating Institutions (PIs). A total of 13,760 villages have been adopted under Unnat Bharat Abhiyan, so far.
AYUSH Minister inaugurates Tribal Unit of NIN at Gohe Budruk in Pune:
The Union Minister of AYUSH Shri Shripad Yesso Naik virtually inaugurated the new unit of National Institute of Naturopathy (NIN) to serve the tribal population at Gohe Budruk in Pune, Maharashtra. 
♦ The new tribal unit of NIN at scheduled tribal areas comes with a 20 bedded facility to provide free clinical services to the tribal population of the area. 
♦ There is a training unit focusing on employment and health of tribal youth. 
♦ A research unit on tribal practices of health maintenance has been started. It will act as a repository of knowledge base and will work in the areas of education, nutrition and health problems of the tribal population. 
♦ The tribal unit has been started with cooperation and assistance from the Tribal Development Department, Government of Maharashtra.