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Science & Technology Current Affairs March 3rd Week 2019

 1. Astronomers discover 83 supermassive black holes 13 billion light-years away from Earth

Astronomers have discovered 83 quasars powered by supermassive black holes 13 billion light-years away from the Earth, from a time when the universe was less than 10 per cent of its present age.
This finding, published in The Astrophysical Journal, increases the number of black holes known at that epoch considerably, and reveals, for the first time, how common they are early in the universe`s history. 
In addition, it provides new insight into the effect of black holes on the physical state of gas in the early universe in its first billion years.
Supermassive black holes, found at the centers of galaxies, can be millions or even billions of times more massive than the Sun. 
While they are prevalent today, it is unclear when they first formed, and how many existed in the distant early universe.
A supermassive black hole becomes visible when gas accretes onto it, causing it to shine as a quasar.

Science & Technology Current Affairs March 2nd Week 2019

 1.Scientists observe water molecules moving around dayside of Moon

Scientists, using NASA`s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), have observed water molecules moving around the dayside of the Moon, the US space agency said, an advance that could help us learn about accessibility of water that can be used by humans in future lunar missions.
Measurements from the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument aboard the LRO of the sparse layer of molecules temporarily stuck to the surface helped characterise lunar hydration changes over the course of a day, according to the study published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.
Scientists have identified surface water in sparse populations of molecules bound to the lunar soil, or regolith.The amount and locations vary based on the time of day. This water is more common at higher latitudes and tends to hop around as the surface heats up.
These results aid in understanding the lunar water cycle and will ultimately help us learn about accessibility of water that can be used by humans in future missions to the Moon. 
Lunar water can potentially be used by humans to make fuel or to use for radiation shielding or thermal management; if these materials do not need to be launched from Earth, that makes these future missions more affordable.
The latest research revealed the amount of energy needed to remove water molecules from lunar materials, helping scientists understand how water is bound to surface materials.
2. First person on Mars likely to be a woman: NASA
NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine has said the first person on Mars is `likely to be a woman`.
NASA will also have its first all-female spacewalk at the end of the month, when astronauts Anne McClain and Christina Koch will get to float around in space.
According to the US space agency, the spacewalk will last about seven hours.
Both McClain and Koch were part of the 2013 astronaut class, half of which were women. 
They came from the second largest applicant pool NASA has ever received -- more than 6,100. The most recent class of flight directors was also 50 per cent women.
NASA has come a long way since 1978, when the first six women joined NASA`s astronaut corps. Currently, women comprise 34 per cent of its active astronauts.

Science & Technology Current Affairs March 1st Week 2019

 1. Geological Survey of India (GSI) launched 22 permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) stations 

In order to identify seismically hazardous zones and encourage mapping activities, the Geological Survey of India (GSI) launched 22 permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) stations across India, which is a part of its objective to establish and maintain a network of continuously operating 35 permanent GPS stations in a phased manner.
22 GPS permanent stations have been set up and remaining 13 will be operational by March 2020.
The 22 GPS-Geodetic (pertaining to Geodesy, the science of earth measurement) observatories are located in Kolkata, Thiruvananthapuram, Jaipur, Pune, Dehradun, Chennai, Jabalpur, Bhubaneswar, Patna, Raipur, Bhopal, Chandigarh, Gandhinagar Visakhapatnam, Agartala, Itanagar, Mangan, Jammu, Lucknow, Nagpur, Shillong and Little Andaman.
The other 13 stations will be located in Aizawl, Faridabad, Uttarkashi, Pithoragarh, Cooch Behar, Zawar, North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman, Ranchi, Mangalore, Imphal and Chitradurga.