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Memorandum of Understanding Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

MoU for S&T Development Between CSIR and Ladakh:

An agreement to establish a joint territory through science and technology (S&T) involvement was signed by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the United Territory of Ladakh.
♦ D.Srinivas Reddy signed the document, CSIR-IIIM Director, and Rigzin Sample, who is a specialist in agriculture and horticulture in Ladakh, Utah.
♦ A information relationship between CSIR and Ladakh UT aims to create the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding.
♦ Areas such as the exploration of natural resources, the introduction of cash crops in the region and the use of biological resources specific to Ladakh are to be established.
♦ In the first phase, comprehensive information and technical support will be provided by CSIR-IIIM, CSIR-CMERI, CSIR-NBRI, CSIR-IHBT, CSIR-CLRI and CSIR-NGRI in the Alliance Territory. To this end, a node organization will become the CSIR-IIIM of Jammu.
♦ Aromatic and nutritious plants or crops, geophysical mapping, eco-friendly processing of leather, bioprospecting of local microorganisms, industrial agriculture (focused on the commercialization of local and other high-value drugs), plant diversity, and microbial and biotech interventions are key areas of interest.
In September 1942, CSIR was established by the Indian government. It is an independent entity and has become the largest R&D organization in India now. This institution is financed primarily by the Department of Science and Technology. It is an independent institution according to the Association Registration Act of 1860. Research and growth, marketing and promotion will now begin at the various CSIR institutes and social projects under this agreement. These projects will be based on its core competitiveness in the region. The institution is involved in various research and development activities such as structural engineering, aerospace engineering, marine science, metallurgy, chemistry, food, life sciences, petroleum, leather and environmental sciences.

Important Days Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

International Customs Day is on 26 January:

International Customs Day is observed by the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) on 26 January 2021.
About the International Customs Day:
♦ On 26 January each year, International Customs Day (ICD) recognizes the role of customs officials and agencies in maintaining border protection.
♦ It focuses on the working conditions and difficulties experienced in their work by customs officers.
♦ It was initiated by the World Customs Organization (WCO).
♦ 26 January 1952 marks the anniversary of the inaugural meeting of the Council for Customs Cooperation (CCC) in Brussels, Belgium.
♦ In 1994, CCC was renamed the World Customs Organization (WCO). CCC was renamed the World Customs Organisation in 1994. (WCO). Today, customs organisations have become members of the WCO from 183 nations. The World Customs Organization`s headquarters are in Brussels.
♦ "Customs bolstering Recovery, Renewal and Resilience for a sustainable supply chain." is the theme of the 2021 commemorative event.
Martyrs Day is on 30 January:
Martyrs` Day is the anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi`s death. January 30th is a scorching sun every year to commemorate Mahatma Gandhi and his contribution to the world.
♦ In 2021, Mahatma Gandhi`s 73rd anniversary of death is being celebrated.
♦ March 23, to pay tribute to the three revolutionaries of India, namely Bagt Singh, Shivaram Raguru and Sukhdev Thapal, is also known as the Martyrs` Memorial Day.
♦ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat, and died on January 30, 1948, in Gandhi Smriti, New Delhi.
♦ He was assassinated by Nathuram Godse of Birla House in the evening prayers.
♦ Gandhi was a lawyer, politician, social activist, journalist, and became the leader of India`s nationalist anti-Indian regime movement.
♦ Gandhi is considered the nation`s father. In freeing India from Britain, Gandhi and his philosophy played an important role.

Economy Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

Govt of India Approves Hike in MSP For Copra:

The minimum support price (MSP) for milled copra and ball copra has been approved by the Cabinet Committee for Economic Affairs (CCEA), chaired by the PM.
♦ The government has raised the MSP of copra by 375 rupees since 2020. The cost of copra, therefore, is 10,335 rupees per quintal, which helps lift the income of farmers.
♦ Farmers in 12 coastal states will be impacted by the rise in MSP for copra. The Milling and Ball Copra MSP has been enhanced.
♦ Both variants of copra have a production cost of Rs. 6,800. The state would be 52 percent and 55 percent higher than the cost of production. The rise of the MSP is in line with the recommendations of Swaminathan.
♦ The MSP is the price fixed by the Indian government for agricultural products. At this amount, the government purchases products directly from farmers. MSP should not be applied by statute.
♦ By providing farmers with the minimum harvest income when the open market price is lower than the actual cost, MSP attempts to protect the interests of farmers.
♦ The prices of 23 goods are calculated twice a year by the government. The MSP is calculated on the basis of the Agricultural Cost and Price Committee`s recommendations (CACP). 
♦ Since 2009, the CACP has been setting prices on the basis of production costs, supply and demand, price volatility, consumer price patterns, international market prices and agricultural wage rates.
♦ List of Commodities for which MSP is set - A total of 23 commodities are covered by the Minimum Support Price. They are:
i)Paddy, Maize, Wheat, Barley, Sorghum, Pearl millet and Ragi (Cereals) ii) Chickpea or Gram, Moong, Tur, Urad and Lentil (Pulses) iii) Peanut, Rapeseed, Sesame, Soyabean, Sunflower Safflower, Niger seed (Oil seeds) iv) Copra, Cotton, Sugarcane and Raw jute (Commercial Crops)

Defence Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

DRDO Test Fires Akash-NG Missile Successfully:

The surface-to-air Akash-NG (new generation) missile off the coast of Orissa has been successfully tested by the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO). The missile is capable of intercepting air attacks. The missile was launched to boost the Indian Air Force`s defense system (IAF).
♦ Akash-NG is a mobile surface-to-air missile defense system that is medium-range.
♦ It was created by the Organization for Defense Research and Development (DRDO).
♦ The missile is jointly developed by Bharat Dynamics Co., Ltd. (BDL) and Balata Electronics Co. (BEL), Tata Power Strategic Engineering Department, and Larsen and Tuburo, which designs missile systems. The latter has been designing radars. Control center and system for launch.
♦ The missile has the potential to strike aircraft at a distance of 50-60 km at an altitude of 18,000 m. Air targets, including fighter jets, cruise missiles and air-to-surface missiles, can be counteracted by missiles.
♦ The Indian Army and the Indian Air Force are fighting against this missile. It uses a ramjet propulsion system that is integrated. After the initial rocket engine burns out before it is intercepted, the propulsion system provides continual thrust for the missile.
♦ The export of the Akash missile defense system was authorised by the Cabinet Security Committee chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in December 2020. After that, interest in the Akash missile system was shown by countries like the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Belarus, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.
♦ The Akash battery consists of a single electronically scanned passive Rajendra 3D array radar, or Basic Rajendra radar, and four launchers, each with three missiles. Up to 64 targets can be tracked by each shell and up to 12 objectives can be targeted. It consists of a pre-fragmented 60 Kg highly explosive warhead. The missile will protect the vehicle in motion. It offers air defense missile coverage of 2,000km.

Schemes Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

Ayushman CAPF (Central Armed Police Forces) Scheme Launched:

In order to expand the benefits of the central health insurance program to all members of the Armed Police Forces of the country, the `Ayushman CAPF` scheme has been initiated.
♦ According to this scheme, "Ayushman Bharat: Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana" will cover approximately 28 CAPF, Assamese rifles and National Security Guard (NSG) personnel and their families (AB PM-JAY).
♦ PM-JAY Main Features: The biggest health insurance/guarantee scheme in the world, completely funded by the government.
♦ For secondary and tertiary nursing hospitalizations in public and private intensive hospitals in India, it offers insurance of 5 lakhs per family per year.
♦ Insurance: Registered for these benefits are over 1,074 million poor and disadvantaged eligible families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries).
♦ Provide beneficiaries with cashless access to health services at the service point.
♦ Eligibility: For the number of families, age or gender, there are no limitations. All the pre-existing conditions are covered from the first day. Cover, such as diagnosis and medications, up to 3 days before hospitalization and up to 15 days following hospitalization. It is possible to use the advantages of the scheme around the world. The program covers nearly 1,393 treatments, covering all treatment-related expenses, including but not limited to drugs, supplies, diagnostic services, physician fees, room fees, surgeon fees, OT and ICU fees, etc. The health care service reimbursement of public hospitals is the same as that of private hospitals.

International Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

Operation Sard Hawa by BSF:

On the western frontier of Rajasthan, Operation Sard Hawa was initiated by border guards. Checking the penetration of dense fog in the region is the main objective of this activity. The operation was also launched before Republic Day to reinforce stability. Until January 27, 2021, the operation will begin.
♦ To keep an eye on the international borders, this operation was carried out. These jaws will be used in this operation to patrol the police station area along the border using advanced weapons.
♦ The amount of Khoba deployed at the border was increased by this action. During Operation Thad Hawa, the border troops` intelligence department will also be involved.
♦ There is a risk of infiltration in this area because of the thick fog in the desert region in winter. Attempts were made to use this haze from the border to penetrate. In this scenario, under special operations like Operation Thaad Hawa, border guards have increased their patrols.
♦ By means of vehicles and on foot, they also track the border. Jaws go on foot walks, too. Camels, cars and pedestrians used by intruders will be marked during the trek.
♦ The border troops of India are often referred to as "the first line of defence in Indian territory." It was established in 1965 after the Indo-Pakistani War.
♦ The Border Protection Force`s key role is to ensure the safety of the Indian border. It is operated by an Indian Police Service officer. In order to free the Indian Army from attack, the BSF also carried out defensive operations during the war.
♦ The BSF also assists in counter-insurgency operations with the Central Reserve Police Force and the Indian Army. A naval wing, air wing, commando and artillery regiments are available to the BSF. BSF is actually the world`s largest border guard.
Intergovernmental Negotiations Framework - India:
The Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations has reported that it has been 13 years since the beginning of the intergovernmental negotiations. Because of its lack of inclusiveness, the UN Security Council has found itself unable to take meaningful steps to address international peace and security problems.
♦ The Intergovernmental Negotiation System (IGN) is a coalition of nation-states working to further reform the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) within the United Nations, which is the highest body in the world and consists of 15 members.
Composition: IGN is composed of several different international organizations, namely: 
(1) African Union; 
(2) G4 nations (India, Brazil, Japan and Germany); 
(3) Unified Consensus Group (UfC); 
(4) L.69 Group of Developing Countries; 
(5) Arab League; 
(6) Caribbean Community (CARICOM).
♦ Each party reflects a different position compared with the reform of the UN Security Council.
♦ In 2016, a "oral decision" was passed by the United Nations General Assembly that approved a declaration called "elements of convergence" detailing the consensus status reached at that time by members of the IGN network.
Global Climate Survey done by UN:
The "United Nations Global Climate Survey." was the largest public opinion survey on climate change in history. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) held a People`s Climate Vote with 1.2 million people from 50 countries/regions to prepare the study.
♦ The United Nations found in the investigation that two-thirds of people claimed this was a "global emergency." The survey stressed that climate change is supported by people around the world. They also offer a strong mandate to leaders to take major steps to find solutions.
♦ Young individuals showed the greatest concern, according to the study. There was a climate emergency, 69 percent of people aged 14-18 said, while 58 percent of people over 60 agreed. Therefore, on climate problems, there is no generation difference.
♦ People strongly advocate renewable energy in countries where fossil fuels are the main source of emissions. For instance, 65 percent of U.S. citizens support renewable energy, 76 percent of Australians support Russia, and 51 percent of Russians support renewable energy.
♦ In countries where deforestation is the principal cause of pollution, people still support the conservation of trees. Brazil received 60% of the assistance and Indonesia received 57%.
♦ The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), based in New York City, is the global development network of the United Nations. The organization promotes technology and collaboration between countries in the field of investment. It is committed to providing developing countries with professional guidance, training and funding. It partners with countries to create their own strategies to resolve global and national developments challenges. 
♦ UNDP only offers assistance to countries when assistance is needed by various countries. UNDP is entirely funded by voluntary contributions from Member States of the United Nations. In 177 countries, UNDP operates. It also helps nations meet the Sustainable Goals for Growth (SDG).

Global Climate Litigation Report by UNEP:

"The "2021 Global Climate Litigation Report" was released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The report was written by UNEP in collaboration with Columbia University`s Sabin Center for Climate Change Law. The study emphasizes that in recent years, climate law suits have increased. The cases make the courts more and more important to attempts to combat global climate change.
♦ Climate occurrences have almost doubled in the past three years, according to estimates. More and more cases of climate change are pushing government and business players to meet their climate commitments.
♦ These cases often push the government to follow more aggressive objectives to mitigate and respond to climate change.  
♦ 884 lawsuits were filed in 24 countries/regions in 2017, according to the data given in the study. The number of cases obtained in 38 countries and the courts of the European Union has risen to 1,550, as of 2020.
♦ The study found that climate litigation in high-income countries tends to be concentrated, and this pattern is likely to escalate in the global South.
♦ Trends in climate litigation, such as violations of "climate rights." were also reported in the study. This means that cases increasingly depend on fundamental human rights, such as the right to life, food, health and water.
♦ After the United Nations Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in 1972, Maurice Strong founded the United Nations Environment Programme (also known as the United Nations Environment Programme). The organization participates in the coordination of the response within the United Nations framework to environmental issues.
♦ It provides leadership, provides scientific expertise and creates solutions to problems such as climate change, management of marine and terrestrial habitats and green economic growth. Governmental environmental agreements were also established which helped achieve environmental targets. UNEP`s primary aim is to help the planet reach 17 targets for sustainable growth.
♦ UNEP has organized environmental agreements such as the Convention on Water and Mercury, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Wild Fauna and Flora Species, and the Convention on Migratory Species. 

National Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

National Non-Communicable Disease Monitoring Survey:

"The "Global Non-Communicable Disease Monitoring Survey (NNMS)" was released by the Union Health Minister, which is the first systematic national survey on risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD) and health system preparedness.


♦ Two out of five adults in India have three or more non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors, and the health system`s status in reacting to the burden of disease is also underscored. 

♦ Overweight or obese: more than 1 in 4 adults and 6.2% of adolescents  

♦ Increased blood pressure: three out of ten adults

♦ Raised blood sugar: 9.3%.

♦ Insufficient physical activity: More than 2 in 5 adults and 1 in 4 adolescents 

♦ One in every three adults and more than one-fourth of men have used some sort of tobacco or alcohol in the past 12 months, respectively.

Silver Jubilee of National Informatics Centre Services Incorporated:

The Silver Jubilee Celebration of the National Informatics Centre Services Incorporated (NICSI).


♦ NICSI is a public sector company under the Ministry of Electronics and Technology, GOI`s National Informatics Center (NIC).

♦ NICSI was founded in 1996 to provide end-to-end IT solutions to India`s central government, state governments and other PSUs for e-government projects.

♦ It also provides ICT services at the international level.

♦ The core services of NICSI include IT Consultancy, Data Analytics Centre of Excellence, Productization & International Marketing, Cloud Services, ICT product facilities, Human Resource/Roll out/Training.

♦ EOffice, eTransport, eHospital, ePrisons, eCourts, etc. are some of its primary products.

♦ NICSI is headquartered in New Delhi.

Paperless Budget Launched Ahead Of 2021 Budget:

Before presenting the union budget on February 1, 2021, Indian Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman launched the "Union Budget Mobile App" It is for members of the Indian Parliament and the public to launch a mobile application. The budget will be absolutely paperless afterwards. In light of the current coronavirus pandemic, this decision was made.
♦ Links to 14 Union budget records, including annual financial statements or budgets, grant criteria (DG) and draft financial regulations will be provided by the mobile application.
♦ The application`s interface is built in a user-friendly way. Features including uploading, printing, browsing, zooming in and out, folders, and external links are included. This is a bilingual application application that is (English and Hindi).
♦ Under the guidance of the Department of Economic Affairs, the National Information Center (NIC) established the application (DEA).
♦ In the Indian constitution, the term "joint budget" is not used. Yet budgets are also called `annual financial statements.` In compliance with Article 112 of the Indian Constitution, this annual financial statement is prepared.
♦ At 5:00 pm on the last working day of February, until 1999, the League budget was announced. The time has been altered to 11 am since the 1999 Budget. In 2016, Narendra Modi changed the date of the presentation of the budget to February 1. Also, the railway budget was combined with the union budget in 2016.
♦ The customary Halva ceremony begins with the printing of budget papers, and the etiquette is carried out by the Minister of Finance. The practice of using leather briefcases for budgeting also shifted in July 2019, when the finance minister was budgeting in Bahi-Khata.

First Young Readers Boat Library in Kolkata:

The first boathouse for young readers was built by the West Bengal Transport Company. In conjunction with conventional book stores, the library was opened. It was introduced and was the first one on board.
♦ Reading books while appreciating the beauty of Kolkata is the reason for opening the boathouse; the object of setting up the boathouse is to read books while appreciating the beauty of Kolkata.
♦ On the Hooghly Channel, the boathouse sails. The library will provide children with an option of 500 English and Bengali titles to choose from.
♦ The boathouse would have a three-hour journey for individuals. The tour of the library begins at Millennium Park. They`re going to go to Belur Math Pier and return. Three journeys will be offered by the ship on all working days.
♦ It offers free wifi as well. For adults, the fare is 100 rupees and 50 rupees for children. Activities such as storytelling, reading lessons, dramatic recitations, poetry lessons, music and the launch of new books will also be hosted.
♦ Millennium Park is a private park situated on Strand Road on the east side of the Hooghly River, in Kolkata. It extends near Fairlie Ghat for 2.5 kilometers. The park consists of landscaped gardens and playing areas for children. The park, which was opened by the river in December 1999, provides a green space for the polluted waterways of Kolkata.
♦ Also known as Bhagirathi-Hooghly, Ganga and Kati Ganga, the Hooghly River is With a total length of around 260 kilometers, this river is a diversion route from the Ganges in West Bengal. It is split into Padma and Hooghly in Murshidabad, near Giria. The other bifurcation of the upstream river made by man is at Farakka. The Padma River flows into Bangladesh to the east, while the Hughli River flows to the southward through West Bengal.

Awards Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

Padma Awards 2021 Announced on Republic Day:

On the evening of the 72nd Republic Day, via the Padma Awards, India awarded 119 individuals from different fields. The President of India presented these prizes in a ceremony held in Rashtrapati Bhawan.
♦ The President approved the award of 119 Padma Awards in 2021. There are 7 Padma Vibhushan awards, 10 Padma Bhushan awards, and 102 Padma Shri awards on the list. The number of women who have won is 29.
♦ It also involves 10 individuals from the groups of foreigners or NRI or PIO or OCI, 16 post-death winners and 1 transgender winner. The Bihar Public Relations Award was given to Shri Ram Vilas Paswan (after death).
♦ The Padma Awards are one of the country`s top civilian awards. There are three categories of the award, namely Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri.
♦ It is available in various fields and disciplines, including art, public relations, social work, trade and business, sports, science and engineering, medicine, literature, education and civil service.
♦ Padma Vibhushan: In the Republic of India, this is the second-highest civilian award. On January 2, 1954, the prize was created. The goal of the award is to recognize "excellent and outstanding service." Race, profession, place or gender are not differentiated. This award is a prize for excellence and excellence in service. Zakir Hussain, Satyendra Nath Bose, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, Nand Lal Bose received the award in 1954.
In the Republic day 2021, this award was given to:
- Shri Shinzo Abe –– Japan (Public Affairs)
- Shri S P Balasubramaniam (Posthumous) –– Tamil Nadu (Art)
- Shri Sudarshan Sahoo –– Odisha (Art)
- Belle Monappa Hegde –– Karnataka (Medicine)
- Shri B. B. Lal Others –– Delhi (Archaeology)
- Shri Narinder Singh Kapany (Posthumous) –– United States of America (Science and Engineering)
- Maulana Wahiduddin Khan ––– Delhi (Spiritualism)
♦ Padma Bhushan: In India, this is the third-highest civilian award. On January 2, 1954, the prize was created. 10 were awarded Padma Bhushan in 2021.
♦ Padma Shri: The 4th highest civilian award in India is Padma Shri. The award has been presented every year by the Government of the Republic of India since 1954. 102 were awarded Padma Shri in 2012.
Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar Was Awarded:
In 2021, Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar was awarded to 32 children. The Government of India (GoI) has awarded children with excellent abilities and accomplishments to Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar.
♦ Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar has been awarded by the Government of India (GoI) to children with outstanding skills and accomplishments in the areas of creativity, art and culture, social service, academia, sports, and bravery.
♦ Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar: Two forms of awards are awarded annually by the award scheme - Bal Shakti Puraskar for individuals and Bal Kalyan Puraskar for children`s institutions/individuals.
♦ The Bal Shakti Puraskar award is given to children in the fields of social work, scholarship, imagination, sport, art and culture, and bravery. With certificates and citations, it comes with a medal and a cash reward of Rs. 1 lakh. This award was previously referred to as the "National Children Award for Outstanding Achievement" It was created in 1996 and was renamed in 2018 as "Bal Shakti Puraskar"
♦ Bal Kalyan Puraskar: The award was established in 1979 and is known as the National Awards for Children`s Welfare. In 2018, it was renamed "Bal Kalyan Puraskar" Given in the fields of child development, child protection, and child welfare to individuals and/or organizations operating. There are two types of the prize, Individuals and Organisations. Three awards and cash prizes were won by each of these two groups.

Environment Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

New ant species discovered from Kerala:

In India, two new rare ant genera have been discovered. The diversity of this unusual genus has been increased by the Ooceraea ant genus found in Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
♦ They differ from those in the same genus according to the number of antennal segments.
♦ One of them, called Ooceraea joshii after an outstanding evolutionary biologist from the Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, was found in the Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala (JNCASR).
♦ Ant genus Ooceraea: There are 14 species of this genus at present, 8 of which have 9 segmented antennas, 5 of which have 11 segmented antennas, and one of which has 8 segmented antennas. The genus is composed of two species containing nine and eleven segmented antennas in India so far.
Global Climate Risk Index Released by Germanwatch-a NGO:
A global climate risk index was recently published by Germanwatch, a non-governmental organization based in Bonn, Germany. India was ranked seventh in the index among the countries most affected in 2019 by climate change.
♦ The monsoon period is one month longer than the usual time in India in 2019, according to the report. 110 percent of the long-term average was observed between June 2019 and September 2019.
♦ Heavy rains in India caused extreme floods, killing 1,800 individuals in 14 states. The flood also caused 1.8 million individuals to be displaced. India has eight tropical cyclones, according to the survey. Six of them have become more serious.
♦ The study further stressed that, in India and Bangladesh, the "extremely severe" cyclone Fani affected 28 million people and caused 90 deaths.
♦ Approximately 11,000 severe weather events globally directly caused approximately 4,75,000 deaths between 2000 and 2019.
♦ Between 2000 and 2014, the economic loss measured at purchasing power parity was approximately US$2.56 trillion due to severe weather conditions. The study also highlighted that about 11.8 million people around the world have been affected by the heavy monsoon, which in turn has caused economic losses of US$ 10 billion.
♦ Every year, German analysts publish the "Global Climate Risk Index" The index analyzes the effect on the nation and the economy of severe weather events. It analyzes the effect of events related to weather losses on countries. The index is compiled based on data given by NatCatSERVICE of Munich Re.
♦ Germanwatch, founded in 1991, is a non-profit, non-governmental organization. The NGO is based in the German town of Bonn. The object of creating this treaty is to influence public trade and environmental policies.

Science & Technology Current Affairs January 4th Week 2021

Rajasthan will conduct a Feasibility Study of Potash Solution Mining:

A tripartite agreement has been signed by Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited (MECL), Rajasthan State Mines & Minerals Limited (RSMML), and the Department of Mines & Geology (DMG). The government of Rajasthan is accountable for the Potash Solution Mining feasibility analysis in Rajasthan.
♦ Nagaur-Ganganagar Basin has an immense wealth of 50,000 square kilometers of Potash and Halite in the northwest of Rajasthan.
♦ For underground oil storage, hydrogen, ammonia and helium gas repositories, compressed gas and radioactive waste storage, Stratified Salt formations may be strategically used.
♦ Potash & Sodium Chloride from Bedded Salt is commonly used in both the fertilizer and chemical industries.
♦ Pave the way for the First Solution Mining Project in the country that will build jobs.
Gender Park Will Open Next Month in Kerala:
The Park of Gender will open next month in Kozhikode, Kerala. On the occasion of the Second International Conference on Gender Equality, the park will open (ICGE-II).
♦ The park will be unveiled by Kerala`s Chief Minister, Pinarayi Vijayan, from 11 to 13 February, to mark the launch of the second edition of ICGE-II.
♦ On this occasion, a cornerstone will also be laid for the International Women`s Trade and Research Center (IWTRC).
♦ IWTRC will be developed with the objective of providing women entrepreneurs with a healthy and sustainable ecosystem. It will also provide space for women to sell goods.
♦ ICGE is Gender Park`s project. The second edition of the conference, which aims to discuss steps to increase the economic capacity of women and of transgender people, will be unveiled. This will help them become entrepreneurs who are sustainable.
♦ The theme of the conference is: "Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Gender Issues in Social Business: The Mediating Role of Empowerment" In collaboration with UN Women, the conference event will be coordinated.
♦ A Gender Park was founded by the Government of Kerala in 2013. This is an initiative in Kerala designed to encourage gender equality and empowerment. The project`s headquarters are based in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala. The main campus, however, is situated in Kozhikode, Silver Mountain. An region of 24 acres surrounds the campus.
♦ Gender equity is the major focus of the park. An forum for policy analysis, research, capacity building, advocacy, economic and social initiatives will be created by the platform. The park will be run by the Department of Social Justice. Such a room is the first of its kind in the world.
♦ The goal of setting up a gender park is to develop effective approaches to resolve a variety of gender-based issues. This encompasses off-campus and on-campus operations as well as other programs aimed at developing personal and community skills.

National Current Affairs January 3rd Week 2021

Statehood Day Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura:

On January 21, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura celebrated the anniversary of their Day of Statehood.
♦ The 49th anniversary of the creation of the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura is on January 21, 2021.
♦ The former princely states of Tripura and Prince Manipur merged into the Federation of India in October 1949 and, on January 21, 1972, became official states.
♦ Under the Northeast Region (Reorganization) Act of 1971, Meghalaya is part of Assam and has obtained absolute statehood.
♦ Before the north-eastern area was converted into seven state-owned sisters of Tripura, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland, Assam plains from the Old Assam Province, hill regions, and the North Eastern Frontier Tracts (NEFT) of North-Eastern border land were involved in the territorial development of the North East.
♦ In 1949, Manipur and Tripura were incorporated into India (as states of Part C) and were granted joint status in 1956 as Union Territories.
♦ In Assam, Meghalaya received the status of an independent state through the Assam State Reorganization (Meghalaya) Act 1969, in accordance with the sixth schedule of the Indian Constitution.
♦ Finally, Tripura, Meghalaya and Manipur were granted full statehood in 1972 by the Northeast Reorganization Act of 1971.

Defence Current Affairs January 3rd Week 2021

Exercise Kavach to be held under Andaman and Nicobar Command:

In the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, the Indian army will conduct large-scale joint military exercises. Under the auspices of the Andaman and Nicobar headquarters, the exercise will be performed.
♦ The Indian Navy, Indian Army, Indian Air Force and Indian Coast Guard will be included in the joint military exercise Kavach.
♦ During the exercise, high-density offensive and defensive measures in the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal would be enforced by the joint force. Moreover, amphibious landing operations will be carried out, with helicopters carrying maritime special forces and, eventually, tactical follow-up operations on the ground.
♦ This is for the three Indian powers to change their joint fighting capabilities. Organized air and sea strikes, coordinated implementations of maritime surveillance assets, air defence and landing operations will also be included in the Kavach exercise.
♦ A joint intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) exercise will also be conducted in addition to the Kavach Exercise. The intelligence collection capabilities will be checked by ISR. Furthermore, data sharing capabilities from space, ground, air and sea will be confirmed.
♦ Intelligence and surveillance missions were allocated to the Heron unmanned aerial vehicle of the Indian Air Force. The Heron fleet of UAVs was bought from Israel. The ground ISR capabilities of India include Daksh. Daksh is a ground sensor which is remote. The artillery regiment uses Israeli-assisted SATA. SATA is a tracking and target acquisition searcher.
♦ The "Black Hornet" drone is used by the National Security Guard for reconnaissance purposes. To increase the role of its ISR, India will concentrate on helicopters, drones and aircraft.
♦ ELINT (Electronic Intelligence) and SAR have been developed by China (Synthetic Aperture Radar). SAR covers a small region, while the surveillance and reconnaissance intelligence exercises covered by ELINT are broader.

Science & Technology Current Affairs January 3rd Week 2021

DRDO Handed Over The Motor Bike Ambulance Rakshita To CRPF:

DRDO handed over the Motor Bike Ambulance “Rakshita” to CRPF.
♦ Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) Rakshita was handed over to the Central Reserve Police Force by DRDO Laboratory in Delhi (CRPF).
♦ This is a bike-based emergency vehicle intended to carry the disabled.
♦ Rakshita is equipped with a custom-made reclining Casualty Evacuation Seat (CES), which can be installed and removed as required.
♦ The bike ambulances are built to help address the obstacles facing Indian security forces and emergency health care providers.
♦ It will provide life-saving support for the evacuation of low-intensity conflict areas to evacuate wounded patients.
♦ In addition to being useful for paramilitary forces and armed forces, this bike ambulance is also useful in possible civilian areas.

Large-Scale Digital Migration of Users to Messaging Platform Signal:

WhatsApp, which is operated by Facebook, recently revised its privacy policy, resulting in a huge digital shift of users from the messaging site to its rivals (such as Signal app).


♦ The Signal is a centralized secure messaging service that is cross-platform. The Signal Technology Foundation and Signal Messenger LLC are designing it.

♦ With an initial investment of US$50 million by Brian Acton, the non-profit Signal Foundation was founded in 2018.

♦ Send one-to-one messages and community messages using the Internet, which may include files, voice notes, photos and videos.

♦ It can also be used for clustered voice and video calls and for one-to-one calls.


♦ As an identifier, Signal uses a regular cell phone number and protects all communications with other users of Signal using end-to-end encryption.

AstroSat - Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope:

In the Milky Way NGC 2808, the AstroSat Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope found unusual, ultraviolet, bright stars.
♦ In the Milky Way galaxy, NGC 2808 is a globular cluster that is said to have at least five generations of stars.
♦ The old globular star cluster known as the " dinosaurs of the universe" offers an outstanding laboratory where, through the stunning ultraviolet images given by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) phase evolution, astronomers can understand how a star changes between its birth and death.
♦ Globular clusters are circular arrays of galactic core-orbiting stars. Clusters like that are closely bound by gravity.

Economy Current Affairs January 3rd Week 2021

Model Tender for Public Procurement Drafted By The Finance Ministry:

In order to standardize the terminology and terms used and prevent contract conflicts, the Ministry of Finance (Dept. of Expenditure) has drafted a model bidding manual for all central government departments to conduct public procurement.
♦ Public procurement is characterized as the public sector or government`s purchasing of goods and services, accounting for an average of 15 percent of global GDP.
♦ In India, government procurement is estimated to account for around 30 percent of GDP, of which a significant part is accounted for by the central government.
♦ In India, there is no formal nomenclature in public procurement and nomenclature is already widespread in the Americas, Europe and India. Uh. E.g. Bidders and bidders are considered bidding members.
♦ The new standard bidding documents aim to eradicate this duality, i.e. "bidder" should refer to the bidding documents and procedures, and the word "bid" should refer to the booth of the bidder.
♦ According to the new model, `bidders` will be used to refer to prospective vendors instead of `bidders,` and the use of `contract papers` will be discontinued.
GST Compensation Shortfall Finance Ministry
To make up for the shortfall in GST compensation, the 12th instalment of Rs. 6,000 crore was released as back-to-back loans to the states.
♦ The 12th weekly instalment of Rs. 6,000 crore was released by the Ministry of Finance, Department of Expenditure, to be distributed to the states to compensate for the shortfall in GST compensation.
♦ The funds were made available to members of the GST Council of 23 States and 3 UTs.
♦ The remaining 5 states (Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim) have no income gap due to the GST implementation.
In October 2020, the Indian government set up a special borrowing window to cover the projected revenue deficit of Rs.1.10 Lakh crore as a result of GST implementation. The borrowings are rendered for the benefit of the States and UTs by the Government of India through this window. 12 rounds of borrowings have been completed since October 2020.

Environment Current Affairs January 3rd Week 2021

Semeru Volcano of Indonesia:

In East Java, Indonesia, the Semeru volcano erupted. Recently, other volcanoes have also erupted, including Merapi (Java) and Sinabung (Sumatra).
Key Facts about Semeru Volcano:
♦ Semeru (also known as "The Great Mountain") is one of the most active volcanoes and is the highest volcano in Java. It had previously exploded in December 2019.
♦ Indonesia boasts the world`s largest number of active volcanoes. It is vulnerable to earthquakes as it is situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire.
♦ A part of the island arc is the Semeru volcano. It is formed by subduction below the Sunda plate of the Indo-Australian plate (part of the Eurasian plate). The trench built here is called the Sunda trench, and the Java trench is its main component.
Uncontrolled Flow Of Untreated Industrial Wastewater Increases Pollution In Gujarat Rivers:
In the rivers of Gujarat, untreated industrial waste water flows without regulation, leading to increased pollution in Sabarmati, Mahisagar, Narmada, Vishwamitri and Bhadar.
♦ Sabarmati is one of the most polluted rivers in the world, according to data from the Ministry of the Environment and Forests (MoEF).
♦ With as many as 20 rivers in the seriously polluted category, Gujarat is ranked fourth among the top five states with the most polluted rivers.
♦ According to official parameters, it should not be released into the river if the chemical oxygen demand (COD) reflecting the load of organic contaminants is higher than 250 mg per liter.
♦ Much of the Gujarat River`s waste water is pumped into it, with a degree of demand for chemical oxygen of 700 to 1,000 milligrams per liter.
♦ Although the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) (indicating the health of the water) should be in the range of 6 to 8 mg per liter of a perennial river like Mahisgar, it is currently less than 2.9 mg per liter.

Great Green Wall for Sahel and Sahara:

The "Great Sahel Green Wall and Sahara Desert Initiative" obtained US$14 billion in funding during the "One Planet Biodiversity Summit." The funds will be used to preserve depleted property, improve resilience, build green jobs and safeguard biodiversity. The World Bank has pledged 5 billion US dollars to financial institutions, the African Development Bank has pledged 6.5 billion US dollars, and the French government pledged 14 billion US dollars.
♦ By planting trees, vegetation, grasslands and plants 8,000 kilometers long and 15 kilometers high, the `Green Wall` project aims to improve the lives of 100 million Africans.
♦ The Great Green Wall is an African leaders` project. The African Union launched this program in 2007 to fight desertification, land loss and drought. By 2030, the project`s aim is to regenerate 100 million hectares of degraded land. The Great Wall Green Wall Project has restored just 4 million hectares of land from 2007 to 2019 so far.
♦ The goal of the initiative is to store 250 million tons of carbon and produce 10 million green jobs. It will promote the planting of fertile land for African communities and improve economic opportunities for the youngest population. In places where the temperature increases faster than the rest of the world, the project would help create climate resilience.
♦ 15 of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals will be contributed to by the Great Wall Green Wall Initiative. Achieving land neutrality by 2030 is the key objective of the United Nations Convention to Fight Desertification. The "Green Wall Great Wall" project would also assist in achieving this objective.

Important Days Current Affairs January 3rd Week 2021

CARA Celebrates its Annual Day:
The 6th Annual Day is celebrated by the Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA). The regulatory body is the Central Adoption Services Authority.
♦ The legislative body of the Ministry of Women and Child Development of the Government of India is CARA (Central Adoption Resources Authority).
♦ CARA has the authority to supervise and control domestic and foreign adoptions as a nodal agency for the adoption of Indian children.
♦ CARA was appointed as the Central Authority to deal with inter-country adoptions in compliance with the terms of the Hague Convention on Inter-country Adoption, 1993, adopted by the Indian Government in 2003.
♦ CARA deals primarily through its related/recognized adoption agencies with the adoption of orphans, neglected and surrendered children.

International Current Affairs January 3rd Week 2021

US National Rifle Association filed for Bankruptcy:

Under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code, the National Rifle Association has recently filed for bankruptcy. To stop being sued by the New York Attorney General, the association filed for bankruptcy.
♦ In August 2020, the Attorney General of New York sued the National Rifle Association on the grounds that the senior management of the association was embezzling millions of dollars for personal travel.
♦ The American Rifle Association, founded in 1871 by veterans of the Civil War, General George Wingate and Colonel William C. Church, is a non-profit organization. To promote and encourage scientific rifle shooting, the organization was founded.
♦ It is considered the United States` most powerful gun group. Critics assume that the corporation is a contributing factor to gun violence in the country.
♦ The NRA teaches gun safety and skills. It has published numerous magazines and sponsored competitive contests for marksmanship. The NRA consists of more than 5 million members as of December 2018.
♦ The main initiatives of the NRA are the Gun Owners Rights Act, which removes the limitations of the 1968 Gun Control Act, and the Dickey Amendment that prohibits federal funding from being used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to support gun control.
♦ The creation of the American National Rifle Association is in line with the creation of the British National Rifle Association, set up a year and a half ago.
♦ From 1861 to 1865, the American Civil War occurred. The product of the long-term enslavement of blacks was the civil war. The NRA is considered a civil war artifact.
♦ The Arms Trade Deal was opposed by the National Rifle Association. The Arms Trade Treaty is a multilateral treaty which governs international trade. The treaty was ratified by more than 109 nations. The treaty aims to regulate the international trade in conventional arms.
Construction of Village In Arunachal Pradesh By China:
China said that the villages established in Arunachal Pradesh across the Line of Actual Control (LAC) were "out of reproach" because Arunachal was "never recognized." India`s Ministry of Foreign Affairs also confirmed that it understood the construction process.
♦ The village was built between November 2019 and November 2020.
♦ It is situated on the banks of the Tsari Chu River in the Upper Subansiri District of Arunachal Pradesh, just a few kilometers across the LAC, beyond the border that India considers to divide Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet.
♦ The village site is near to the place where, in the so-called Longju incident in 1959, China attacked the Assam rifle post. It is at least 2 miles south of the McMahon Line and it is not recognised by China.
♦ India stopped patrolling the area after the 1962 war. Another village established last year, named Pangda, was built within 2-3 kilometers of Bhutan`s territory in another disputed area.
Ndrangheta from South America to Europe:
Italian authorities claim that the Ndrangheta Mafia is responsible for managing South America`s huge amounts of cocaine entering Europe. The Italian government announced this after the large-scale Mafia trial against the Ndrangheta party.
♦ In the region of Calabria, Ndrangheta is a popular Italian mafia. In the 18th century, the Mafia began.
♦ The first official report of the Ndrangheta was submitted in 1792 during the reign of the Bourbons of Naples.
♦ Drug trafficking accounts for 3% of Italy`s GDP, according to U.S. money laundering operations. The annual turnover of Ndrangheta is roughly US$50 billion to US$60 billion.
♦ Ndrangheta also operates in other countries, including Germany, Albania, Australia, Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Brazil, Colombia, the Netherlands, Malta, Switzerland, the Republic of Slovakia, Uruguay, the United Kingdom and the United States.
♦ According to EUROPOL (European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation), the most powerful organized crime organization in the world is Ndrangheta.
♦ The province of Calabria is situated in southern Italy. The area is bordered east by the Ionian Sea and west by the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Messina Strait divides Calabria from Sicily. One of Ndrangheta`s closest associates is known to be the Mafia in Sicily.
♦ The Camorra, Sacra Corona Unita, Societa foggiana, Stidda, Albanian Mafia, American Mafia, Primeriro Comando da Capital are the Allies of the Ndrangheta Mafia.
♦ In Italy, there are the Camorra, Safian Mafia, Sacra Corona Unita, Stidda and Societa Foggiana. In Brazil, Primeiro Comando da Capital is located. 

LongOps Project Between UK and Japan:

A partnership between the UK and Japan is the LongOps initiative. Japanese and British scientists will develop new protection technology in this operation to remove old nuclear facilities, such as Fukushima, which have been badly damaged by tsunamis and earthquakes.
♦ The project will use robotic arms that are remote, so it is called the "LongOps Project" The project would minimize risks to human health and accelerate the decommissioning of nuclear reactors that are not in use.
♦ The cost of implementing the LongOps project is Euro 12 million (1.2 billion rupees). It will concentrate on the rapid decommissioning of nuclear installations.
♦ The project will also concentrate on the partial automation of the nuclear fusion power generation process, in addition to dismantling the nuclear fission sector.
♦ In addition, the initiative would help to develop and uninstall nuclear fusion facilities, such as the Circle of the European Union. A nuclear fusion experiment located at the Culham Fusion Energy Center in the United Kingdom is the United European Ring.
♦ This is the first reactor to be developed using both 50-50 and deuterium mixed fuel. To follow the principles used in the ITER project, it was closed in 2009.
♦ ITER is the Experimental International Thermonuclear Reactor. India is part of ITER as well. China, Russia, Japan, the European Union, the United States, and South Korea are the other countries involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.
♦ The LongOps project is part of Digital Twin Technology. At the decommissioning site, it will evaluate data and forecast barriers to operation and maintenance.
♦ More than 21 extreme radioactive release events occurred in Sellafield between 1950 and 2000. The location of Sellafield is in the United Kingdom. This is a former nuclear facility. Activities at the site as of August 2020 include the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, nuclear decommissioning and disposal of nuclear waste.
♦ In 2011, during the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor was seriously damaged. More than 150,000 individuals were displaced by the incident. Furthermore, animals and plants are severely poisoned in the surrounding environment.

Memorandum of Understanding Current Affairs January 3rd Week 2021

Indian Army to Procure UAV:

A deal to buy high-altitude drones from IdeaForge at a price of US$20 million has been signed by the Indian Army.
♦ Idea Forge is a start-up company created and incubated by alumni of the Institute of Technology of Indian Bombay (IIT-B).
♦ The contract is for a Turn UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) high-altitude version, which is a local surveillance system.
♦ In India`s defense procurement process, this marks a strategic change that focuses on local technologies.
♦ This is an example of how start-ups sponsored by the government will help the country grow. This is the order with the biggest contract value for any Indian drone equipment manufacturer.
Importance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle:
The Army has ordered an advanced high-altitude version of SWITCH UAV, which is a vertical take-off and landing drone. It is a fixed-wing hybrid unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Its functions include:
-Advanced flight time within 15 kilometres.
-It is about 2.6m long, 1.8m wide, and weighs less than 6.5 kg.
-Higher protection and easy service, as well as additional redundancy that is fail-safe.
-Used for long-term operations in harsh conditions, in military, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions for day and night surveillance.
-The method of capturing, measuring and analyzing photographic images and electromagnetic radiation image patterns is the technology used in photogrammetry to gain accurate information on physical objects and the environment.
Crowd monitoring, emergency management, precision agriculture, mining, etc. are other applications of UAVs.
Defence Geo-Informatics Research Establishment by DRDO:
With the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) for Geo-hazard Management, DRDO has signed a Memorandum of Understanding agreement.
MoU Details:
♦ The goal of the MoU is to strengthen cooperation in the field of technical exchanges and cooperation in the field of sustainable management of geohazards.
♦ DRDO and MoRTH will collaborate in various mutually beneficial fields related to geohazard management, according to the Memorandum of Understanding.
♦ In order to prevent landslides and other natural disasters from adversely affecting national highways in the region, the initiative will ensure protection.
♦ It has been decided that DRDO`s (through the DGRE) expertise will be used to provide sustainable mitigation measures on various national highways in the country for damage caused by landslides, avalanches and other natural factors.
About DGRE:
The Defense Geo-Informatics Research Establishment (DGRE) is the DRDO laboratory, a leading organization in the development of key technologies that can improve operational efficiency, with a focus on terrain and avalanches. Its role and charter include mapping, forecasting, monitoring, controlling and mitigating of landslides and avalanches in Himalayan terrain. Terrain and modeling simulation are important assets of DGRE, and it will play an important role in planning and building strong road infrastructure in difficult terrains.

POWERGRID and HPSEBL Signed the OPGW Telecom Network Agreement:

By signing an agreement between Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID) and Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board Limited (HPSEBL) to use 500 kilometers of OPGW telecommunications network in Shimla, telecommunications connectivity in hilly areas has been enhanced (HP).
♦ Telecommunication service providers would be able to provide the citizens of the state with uninterrupted mobile/Internet connectivity via the OPGW network.
♦ The optical ground wire is often referred to as OPGW, or it is called optical fibre composite overhead ground wire in the IEEE standards. It is a kind of cable that is used on overhead power lines. This cable incorporates roles for grounding and connectivity.
♦ OPGW is an optical fibre composite ground wire. The cable contains a tubular structure with one or more optical fibres and is surrounded by layers of aluminium and steel wires.
♦ For connecting the tower to the ground, this layer of aluminium and steel wire is used. For high-speed data telemetry between utilities, the optical fibre in the cable is used or leased to some third parties for high-speed fibre interconnection between towns.

Environment Current Affairs January 2nd Week 2021

NCAVES India Forum Organized by Union Ministry:

The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation is organizing the NCAVES (Natural Capital Accounting & Valuation of Ecosystem Services) India Forum for the year 2021.
♦ Project NCAVES is sponsored by the European Union and (EU). NCAVES is implemented collectively by the following agencies: the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Secretariat.
♦ Subsequent agencies are implemented in India: the Ministry of Statistics and Planning and then, in close cooperation, the Ministry of Atmosphere, Forests & Global Climate Change (MoEF&CC) and therefore the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC).
♦ India is one of five participating countries in this initiative. China, Brazil, South Africa, and Mexico are additional participating nations.
♦ Participation in the project will help to compile environmental accounts in compliance with the UN-SEEA process and also help to publish environmental accounts once a year from 2018 in its "EnviStats India" publication.
♦ Under the NCAVES project, the India-EVL tool was developed.
♦ This is an investigative tool that offers an analysis of the importance of diverse ecosystem resources funded by approximately 80 studies performed around the nation in many states of the world.

International Current Affairs January 2nd Week 2021

India Chairs 3 Key Subsidiary Bodies of the UNSC:

India will host the three-key subsidiary bodies of the UNSC (United Nations Security Council).
♦ The parties include the Counter-Terrorism Committee, the Sanctions Committee of the Taliban, and the Sanctions Committee of Libya.
♦ A special response was evoked in India by the Chairman of the Counter-Terrorism Committee. India has not only been at the forefront of the battle against terrorism, especially cross-border terrorism, but it is also one of India`s greatest victims. Considering the strong interest and commitment of India to Afghanistan`s stability, security, growth and progress.
♦ The Taliban Sanctions Committee has always been India`s highest priority. When the international community pays attention to Libya and thus to the social process, India, at a crucial juncture, will assume the chairmanship of the Libya Sanctions Committee.

National Current Affairs January 2nd Week 2021

Urban Local Bodies Reforms In India:

Telangana becomes the 3rd State to finish the Urban Local Bodies reforms.
♦ Telangana has become the third state in India to successfully introduce the reform of the "Urban Local Bodies (ULB)" mandated by the Ministry of Finance and the Expenditure Department.
♦ The State is therefore entitled, through Open Market Borrowings, to mobilise additional financial capital of Rs 25.08 crore.
♦ Two other states, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, which have completed this reform, have now joined Telangana.
♦ The aim of the reform of urban municipal institutions and of the reform of urban public utilities is to improve each state`s urban public finances so that public health and health services can be provided better. Ultralight organisations that have experienced economic revival will also be able to create strong infrastructure for citizenship.
Mera Gaon Mera Gaurav Drive in Goa:
Cleanliness activities are managed in Ibrampur, Veling and Parra villages in Goa under the ICAR`s `Mera Gaon Mera Gaurav` initiative.
♦ The drive “Mera Gaon Mera Gaurav” was launched in 2015.
♦ This is the flagship programme of the Prime Minister of India.
♦ Objective: Provide the required information, knowledge and advice to farmers through adoption villages on a daily basis.
♦ Aim: To link the direct interface of scientists with farmers in order to speed up the process of landing in the laboratory.
♦ The drive, which is an independent body responsible for organising agricultural education and science, is implemented by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research-ICAR.
♦ ICAR reports to the Ministry of Agriculture`s Department of Agricultural Research & Education.

Digital Calendar & Diary of state of India:

The Digital Calendar and Diary of the State of India were launched by the Union Minister for Information and Broadcasting.
♦ On Google Play and iOS App Store, Digital Calendar & Diary of the State of India are available as free smartphone apps.
♦ They are available in Hindi and English, and 11 regional languages will soon be available.
♦ The app listed was created by the Outreach and Communication Bureau of the Ministry of Data and Broadcasting, along with the NIC (National Informatics Centre).
♦ The app will provide:
♦ The timeline for the launch of India`s diverse government programs so far.
♦ The latest data on the various projects, activities, and publications of GOI.
♦ Official holidays & other important dates.
♦ Inspirational & motivational messages from our nation`s great personalities.
♦ With the most sophisticated protection & privacy controls, the supply of digital notes can be stored.
♦ Provision for meeting preparation and the setting up reminders for important activities and events.
♦ In the future, the visually-handicapped people also can use this app.
NIXI Provides Free Domain in Local Indian Languages:
A free IDN (Internationalized Domain Name) is given by NIXI (National Internet Exchange of India) which contains any of the 22 preferred official Indian languages and each IN name reserved by the registrant. Free local language emails will also be sent by applicants. In order to stimulate the adoption of International (IDN) Domain Names and increase local language content, this offer was made.
NIXI can be a non-profit company pursuant to Section 8 of the Companies Act, 2013, enacted in 2003. To shape peer-to-peer ISPs (Internet Service Providers) with each other, NIXI was created. The goal is to redirect domestic domestic traffic, not to thank the United States/abroad for it all. this protects international bandwidth, thereby improving service quality (reducing latency) and reducing ISP bandwidth costs.

Economy Current Affairs January 2nd Week 2021

Liberalized Authorised Economic Operator Package for MSMEs:

Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs - CBIC launches the Micro Small and Medium Enterprises Flagship Liberalized Approved Economic Operator Package (MSMEs).
♦ "A replacement initiative to launch the flagship product "Liberalized MSME AEO Kit" for Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) has been adopted by the Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs - CBIC to recognise rapid customs clearance.
♦ CBIC (Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs) has relaxed the compliance requirements in order to attract and luxuriate MSMEs to become Approved Economic Operators (AEOs) provided the MSMEs have a valid certificate from their line-ministry.
♦ The` Liberalized MSME AEO Box` framework may also be a voluntary enforcement programme that provides qualified stakeholders within the worldwide supply chain with faster customs clearance services (namely importers, exporters, logistics service providers, custodians, etc.).
♦ Relaxed conditions allowing micro-small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) to use the scheme if they apply a minimum of 10 customs clearance documents within 1 year and have valid enforcement documents within 2 years.
Japan Provides Loan To India:
Japan & India signed a 50 billion loan agreement in support of India`s economic support programme for the pandemic-affected poor and disadvantaged groups.
♦ The loan may also be an Official Development Assistance Neighborhood of Japan - ODA loan.
♦ Official Development Assistance is described as government assistance designed to support the economic development and welfare of developing countries.
♦ The loan`s average interest rate is 0.65%, and so the maturity period is 15 years, with a 5-year grace period.
♦ Help goals are aimed at supporting programmes of the Indian Government, such as Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY), which aims to minimise socio-economic impact and strengthen socio-economic institutions.
♦ This includes proposals to provide food to the needy and vulnerable communities, to provide construction workers with assistance and encouragement, and plans to provide special insurance for doctors fighting against Covid-19. It is to enforce the Indian government`s health and medical policies and is expected to guide the development of the hospital equipped with medical assistance units (ICU) and infection prevention units and management facilities. In many villages in India, digital technology is additionally expected to strengthen telemedicine.

Important Days Current Affairs January 2nd Week 2021

World Hindi Day designated on 10 January:

On 10 January, World Hindi Day is celebrated every year to promote the language across the globe. It is labelled all over the world by Indian embassies. This day has been celebrated around the globe since 2006.
♦ The 5th most spoken language in the world is Hindi. It is used in the United Kingdom, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Germany, New Zealand, the United States, Uganda, the UAE, Guyana, Trinidad, Suriname, South Africa and Mauritius. This language is used by more than 43 core staff in the world.
♦ National Hindi Day is distinct from World Hindi Day, which is observed every year on September 14.
♦ Each year, Rajbhasha Kirti Puraskar and Rajiv Gandhi Rashtriya Gyan-Vigyan Maulik Pustak Lekhan Puraskar are presented with two awards on National Hindi Day.
♦ Various ministries, the PSU and state-owned banks were given the Rabhasha Prize.
♦ Since the birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha is 14 September, it was chosen as the National Hindi Day.
♦ Beohar Rajendra Simha is an Indian scholar, a theologian, a Sanskrit historian, a Savoyanist, a politician, a writer, and a Gandhian. On his 50th birthday, Hindi was determined to be the official language of India.
♦ This term is transferred from "Sindhu" in Sanskrit. The word "Sindh" became "India" after the Iranians entered India.

Environment Current Affairs January 1st Week 2021

GoI Sets Up Control Room To Control Spread Of Bird Flu:

The Ministry of Animal Husbandry has set up control rooms after confirmation of the avian influenza outbreaks in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala and the Himalayas.
♦ The control room will pay careful attention to the situation and review, on a regular basis, the preventive and control measures adopted by the state governments. Even, the control room will comply with the National Action Plan for Avian Flu.
♦ The following components comprise the National Action Plan on Avian Influenza:
♦ Advising states and federal territories to avoid outbreaks of bird flu.
♦ The second section of the action plan sets out the steps that should be taken if an outbreak of avian influenza is suspected.
♦ The third part describes the actions during the outbreak.
♦ The fourth part decides the management of individuals that have infected poultry with bird flu. The individual will provide advice on biosafety and biosafety steps.
♦ Viruses of influenza are classified into types A, B and C. Influenza A viruses are known to only infect animals and to be zoonotic. This suggests that it can also infect humans with type A. 
♦ The avian influenza subtypes are H5N1, H7N9 and H9N2. The subtypes are categorised according to surface proteins called hemagglutinin and neouracilase.
♦ This is the global scheme of influenza surveillance and response that was introduced in 1952 by the World Health Organization. It tracks seasonal global patterns and possible influenza pandemics. It is the backbone of the global system of flu warnings.
♦ The World Health Organization has launched a Global Influenza Plan for 2019-2030. It aims at preventing seasonal influenza and managing the transmission of viruses to humans from animals.

International Current Affairs January 1st Week 2021

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action - JCPOA:

Iran has informed the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) that it plans to produce up to 20% pure enriched uranium, well above the level set by the 2015 Vienna Accord (also known as JCPOA).
About JCPOA:
♦ An agreement between Iran and the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council-China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States-plus Germany) together with the European Union on the Iranian nuclear programme concluded in Vienna on 14 July 2015 is widely used as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal.
♦ Iran agreed to reduce its enriched uranium stocks, decrease its low-enriched uranium stocks by 98%, and decrease its gas centrifuges by around two-thirds within 13 years, according to the JCPOA.
♦ Iran could only enrich uranium by up to 3.67 percent in 15 years . During the same time, Iran agreed not to build any new heavy-water facilities.
♦ The operations of uranium enrichment are limited to a single facility that uses 10 years of first-generation centrifuge. To prevent proliferation threats, other facilities will be changed.
♦ The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will periodically use all Iran`s nuclear facilities in order to track and verify Iran`s compliance with the agreement.
♦ The agreement specifies that Iran will obtain relief from the U.S., European Union, and UNSC nuclear-related sanctions in exchange for verifiable compliance with its commitments.
♦ On 5 January 2020, following the Baghdad Airport airstrike that targeted and killed Iranian General Qassem Soleimani, Iran announced that it would no longer comply with the agreement`s limitations, but would continue to work with the IAEA to restore compliance.

Economy Current Affairs January 1st Week 2021

Indias Rice Exports To Vietnam:

Vietnam has recently begun to purchase grain, especially rice, from India due to attractive prices. Though Vietnam is the third-largest exporter of rice in the world, Vietnam has begun importing rice from India.
♦ Vietnam has begun importing rice from India since, due to insufficient domestic availability, the country`s local price has risen to the highest level in 9 years. This is largely because, for the future, Vietnam has begun to store a significant amount of rice.
♦ The price of Indian rice, however, is very attractive. The enormous price gap forced the government of Vietnam to import rice from India.
♦ 70,000 tonnes of rice will be shipped to Vietnam by Indian traders at a price of approximately US$310 per tonne. In January and February 2021, India will be exporting broken rice to Vietnam.
♦ The global pandemic has contributed to the stockpiling of rice in Vietnam and other countries. This is because the decline in the availability of food makes people more and more anxious about food insecurity.
♦ In the event of a disturbance in the global supply chain of Covid-19, Vietnam plans to reserve US$270,000 of rice to ensure access to food. It faces shortages, therefore, and is dependent on imports.
♦ The price of broken rice in India ranges from US$381 to US$387 per ton.
♦ Demand in Asian and African countries has been increased by the attractive price of Indian rice. Thailand and other Asian countries are expected to move imports of rice to India as well.
♦ Total production in Vietnam in 2020 drops by 1.85% compared to 2019. Furthermore, Vietnam`s rice exports dropped by 3.5 percent in 2020 compared to 2019.
Exim Bank Has Raised $1 Billion By Dollar-Bond Sale:
Through the selling of US dollar bonds to foreign investors, the Export-Import Bank has earned US$1 billion.
Exim Bank:
♦ A specialised financial institution wholly owned by the Government of India, the Export-Import Bank of India was founded in 1982 to provide financing, facilitation and promotion of trade in India.
♦ The Export-Import Bank provides exporters and importers with financial assistance.
♦ In order to facilitate foreign trade in the region, it is the main financial agency responsible for organising the work of the institutions involved in financing the import and export of goods and services.

National Current Affairs January 1st Week 2021

Rashtriya Kamadhenu Aayog Announces Online Exam:

Rashtriya Kamadhenu Aayog recently declared that an online "Gaau-Vigyan" (Cattle Science) national-level exam will be conducted. This is done to arouse the interest of students and the public in local cows and their benefits.


♦ The exam will be on February 25, 2021.

♦ All students at elementary, middle and university levels can take the test free of charge.

♦ The exam will be held every year starting in 2021.

♦ This exam is the first time in China.

♦ All those who take the exam should receive a certificate, and immediately after the exam, the results of the exam will be announced.

♦ To assist aspiring candidates, Rashtriya Kamadhenu Aayog has prepared learning materials about cow science.

♦ After they stop feeding, this test will make all Indians curious about cows and make them aware of the business opportunities and untapped potential that cows can provide.

Rashtriya Kamadhenu Aayog:

To organise animal husbandry according to modern and scientific methods, Rashtriya Kamadhenu Aayog was created. Measures would be taken to boost the dairy cow breed and ban the slaughter of dairy cows. It is an important part of the Gokul Project in Rashtriya. The goal is to preserve and establish breeds of indigenous cattle. In 2014, according to the National Plan, the mission was launched for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development.

Central Scheme for Industrial Development in J&K:

An ambitious proposal to encourage industrial growth in Jammu and Kashmir has been approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (J&K). For industrial development planned for Jammu and Kashmir, the Indian government has allocated 28,400 crore rupees. Funds to be used until 2037 to develop the region`s manufacturing sector.


♦ The main objective of the plan is to establish opportunities for jobs, thus fostering economic growth and promoting the development of industries and services. This would draw new investment, in turn.

♦ The strategy is ambitious because it applies to large and small segments of business.

♦ The plan provides the following incentives:

♦ The plan would include 30 percent of the incentives for capital investment in the region.

♦ In Zone B, it will have 50 percent investment incentives. This involves manufacturing and construction investments.

♦ Rs 5 crore for Zone A and Rs 7.5 crore for Zone B are the maximum rewards.

♦ The proposal would include annual 7-year interest rate subsidies for loans of up to 5 billion rupees over a 7-year period.

♦ Incentives relating to the tax on goods and services would represent 300% of the eligible value of the real expenditure.

♦ The amount of the reward awarded does not exceed one tenth of the qualifying reward amount.

♦ It is projected that the plan would draw significant investment and provide direct and indirect employment opportunities in the area for 4.5 lacs.

♦ As part of the industrial policy in Kashmir, the central government has so far spent a total of 11.23 billion rupees.

E-Committee Of Supreme Court Gets Award:

The E-committee of the Supreme Court (SC) of India awarded the President of India with the Platinum Award for Excellence in Digital Governance.
♦ A Mission Model Project by the Indian Government is the E-Court project conceived and initiated by the E-Committee, the Supreme Court of India, the Department of Justice and the NIC (National Information Center).
♦ Through the e-court service website, smartphone application, SMS and email services of the 3293 court house, people can access the status of the case and the court order on the grounds of litigation at any time and anywhere.
♦ Out of more than 130 million cases, court orders and rulings, people can even get 24-7 information for free.
♦ Through video conferencing, the courts used the digital infrastructure provided by the electronic court project pan India to hear more than 5.5 million cases through video conferencing during the COVID pandemic, making Indian courts a world leader in handling cases through VC.



Science & Technology Current Affairs January 1st Week 2021

Maiden Flight Trial of SAHAYAK-NG - Air Droppable Container:

The Defense Research and Development Organization-DRDO and the Indian Navy conducted the "SAHAYAK-NG" successful maiden test along the Goa coast. This is the first indigenous Air Dropped Container of IL 38SD aircraft designed and produced by India (Indian Navy)
♦ The IN-Indian Navy conducted the trial to develop its combat logistics capabilities and provide essential engineering warehouses for ships deployed from the coast more than 2,000 kilometres away.
♦ Reduced the need to collect spare parts and warehouses close to the coast for ships.
♦ SAHAYAK-NG is the advanced version of SAHAYAK Mk I.
♦ The newly designed airdrop GPS-assisted container can hold up to 50 kg of payload and can be dropped from a heavy aircraft.
Swasth Vayu Non-Invasive Ventilator Receives Regulator Nod:
The nod regulator award was won by the Swasth Vayu non-invasive ventilator created by CSIR-NAL. The Swasth Vayu non-invasive ventilator is an indigenously built and developed non-invasive bi-level positive airway pressure ventilator.
♦ For the care of COVID-19 patients, the ventilator often has other features.
♦ It is an accurate microcontroller-based closed-loop adaptive control system with an integrated biocompatible "3D printing manifold and coupler" and a HEPA filter (high efficiency particulate air filter).
♦ These specific characteristics help relieve the concern that the virus will spread. It has functions such as random / AUTO mode, CPAP, Bi-Timed, and can be linked from the outside to an oxygen concentrator or concentration unit.
♦ The efficiency of the equipment was assessed by an expert committee consisting of the Government of India`s Director-General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
♦ After careful evaluation, the expert committee concluded that Swasth Vayu can be used for COVID-19 patients who need supplemental 35% oxygen.
♦ The technology has been commercialised by CSIR-NAL with six private companies, one of which (belonging to the MSME category) has set up a production facility of almost 300 units per week.
A part laboratory of the Council of Science and Industrial Research (CSIR) of India, the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) is the only government aerospace R&D laboratory in the civil sector. CSIR-NAL is a high-tech company which is committed to advanced aerospace disciplines. Founded in 1959, NAL is based in Bangalore, Karnataka. The CSIR-NAL mission is to develop aerospace technology with strong scientific knowledge, design and manufacture small & medium-sized civil aircraft, & support all national aerospace programs.
FSSAI Slashes Limit For Trans-Fat Levels In Foods:
FSSAI has approved food amendments to restrict the amount of trans fatty acids (TFA in fats and oils) from the current 5% to 3% in 2021 and 2% in 2022. Normal Laws (Prohibition and Restriction of Sales).
♦ Edible refined oils, vanaspati (partially hydrogenated oils), margarine, bakery shortenings and other cooking media, such as vegetable fat spreads and mixed fat spreads, are protected by revised regulations.
♦ The increased risk of heart failure and death from coronary heart disease is associated with Transfat.
♦ According to WHO (World Health Organization) data, there are approximately 540,000 deaths worldwide per year due to the intake of industrially produced trans-fatty acids.
♦ The WHO has also called for trans fats to be removed globally by 2023.
Trans – fats:
The most dangerous fat types are trans fatty acids (TFA) or trans fats. It is more detrimental to the human body compared with other food ingredients. The majority of these fats are manufactured artificially, but a small amount is created naturally. These could therefore be in our diet in the form of artificial TFA and/or natural TFA. When hydrogen reacts with oil to create, artificial TFAs are produced fat similar to pure ghee/butter. In our diet, the main source of artificial TFA is partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO)/vanaspati/margarine, while natural TFA is found in meat and dairy products, though in small amounts.

Important Days Current Affairs January 1st Week 2021

Global Family Day is celebrated on 1st January:

Global Family Day is celebrated around the world every January 1st (especially in the United States). This is a global day of sharing and harmony. We all know how much "family" is important to everyone. For Global Family Day 2021, this is the case. It treats the entire planet as one family this day.
♦ On 1 January, Global Family Day (GFD) was celebrated. GFD was born on the Day of Peace of the United Nations Millennium Anniversary. On January 1, 2000, it was first observed. From then on, the annual Global Family Day will be the first day of each year.
♦ The goal of GFD is to encourage multiculturalism, diversity and teach how peace and harmony coexist. This day promotes the idea of "a big global family" being the world. This also makes it possible for humans to transcend all other parameters.
♦ This day`s main aim is for all families to meet in one place to welcome the new year on the first day of the year.
♦ January 1, 2021, is drawing close. Recently, we wish "Happy Global Family Day 2021" to you and your family, and hope that the bond between you and your loved ones will be stronger.
Pravasi Bharatiya Divas Convention Organized on 9 January:
Although the Covid pandemic is still underway, on January 9, 2021, the 16th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas Convention will be organised. On 9 January, Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD) was held to commemorate the contribution of overseas Indian communities to India`s growth (NRI).
♦ The PBD Convention is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs` flagship operation and provides an important forum for communication and interaction with overseas Indians.
♦ The PBD Convention has been held every year since 2003. Since 2015, the format has been updated every two years to celebrate PBD.
♦ Article 16 of the 2021 PBD Convention has as its theme: `Contribution to Aatmanirbhar Bharat.`
♦ Mahatma Gandhi, the greatest Pravasi, has returned from South Africa to India since that day in 1915, leading India`s fight for independence and changing the lives of Indians forever. Therefore, to celebrate this day, January 9th was scheduled., Days.
♦ These conventions provide a forum to communicate with their ancestral governments and local citizens to carry out mutually beneficial activities for overseas Indian communities.
♦ These conventions are also very useful for communicating and sharing their experiences in different fields with overseas Indian communities living around the world.